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Peer-Reviewed Research Publications

Full access to these publications is available FREE for EDUCATA members.


Effects of evidence-based fall reduction programing on the functional wellness of older adults in a senior living community: a clinical case study
By: Harnish A, Dieter W, Crawford A, Shubert TE.
Front Public Health. 2016 Dec 22;4:262.
This article is referred to in the course Fall Prevention offered by Mindy Renfro

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Abstract:
Older adults at a high risk of falls may be referred to a physical therapist. A physical therapy episode of care is designed for the transition of an older adult from a high fall risk to a moderate to low fall risk. However, these episodes of care are limited in time and duration. There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of group-based exercise classes to address risk, and transitioning an older adult from physical therapy to a group-based program may be an effective way to manage risk through the continuum of care. (more)


Sports-related extensor carpi ulnaris pathology: a review of functional anatomy, sports injury and management
By: Campbell D, Campbell R, O'Connor P, Hawkes R.
Br J Sports Med. 2013 Nov;47(17):1105-11.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
The extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) muscle plays a key role not only in the active movements of wrist extension and ulnar deviation, but also in providing stability to the ulnar side of the wrist. The ECU tendon relies on specific stabilising structures to hold it in the correct positions to perform its different functions. These structures can be injured in a variety of different athletic activities, including tennis, golf and rugby league, yet their injury and disruption is predictable when the mechanics of the ECU and the techniques of the sport are understood. This review describes the functional anatomy in relevant sporting situations and explains how problems occur, as well as when and how to intervene. (more)


The normal shoulder during freestyle swimming. An electromyographic and cinematographic analysis of twelve muscles
By: Pink M, Perry J, Browne A, Scovazzo ML, Kerrigan J.
Am J Sports Med. 1991 Nov-Dec;19 (6):569-76.
This article is referred to in the course The Mechanics of Swimming offered by Marilyn M. Pink and USA Swimming Foundation:

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Abstract:
The shoulder in swimming is subjected to multiple factors that can lead to a high injury rate. To prevent injury, one must understand the biomechanics of swimming. This paper describes the electromyographic and cinematographic findings of 12 shoulder muscles in competitive swimmers without shoulder pain. This information is important to design optimal preventative and rehabilitative exercise programs. (more)


The painful shoulder during freestyle swimming. An electromyographic cinematographic analysis of twelve muscles
By: Scovazzo ML, Browne A, Pink M, Jobe FW, Kerrigan J.
Am J Sports Med. 1991 Nov-Dec;19(6):577- 82.
This article is referred to in the course The Mechanics of Swimming offered by Marilyn M. Pink and USA Swimming Foundation:

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Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to describe the patterns of activity of 12 shoulder muscles in painful shoulders, and compare those patterns of activity with normal shoulders. The results show significant differences in 7 of the 12 muscles. This information will contribute to the development of muscle conditioning programs to optimize performance and prevent injury, as well as develop programs for scientific rehabilitation strengthening. (more)


The normal and the painful shoulders during the breaststroke. Electromyographic and cinematographic analysis of twelve muscles
By: Ruwe PA, Pink M, Jobe FW, Perry J, Scovazzo ML.
Am J Sports Med. 1994 Nov- Dec;22(6):789-96.
This article is referred to in the course The Mechanics of Swimming offered by Marilyn M. Pink and USA Swimming Foundation:

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to describe and compare electrical activity patterns in 12 shoulder muscles during the breaststroke in 25 competitive swimmers who had normal shoulders, and in 14 who had painful shoulders while they performed this stroke in a pool. The electromyographic analysis was synchronized with high-speed cinematography to discern phases of the breaststroke. Means, standard deviations, and t-tests were done for each phase. (more)


Multicomponent exercise for physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women
By: Kang S, Hwang S, Klein AB, Kim SH.
Made available by PubMed.
J Phys Ther Sci. 2015 Mar;27(3):911-5.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to identify whether a 4-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the level of physical fitness of community-dwelling elderly women. Twenty-two healthy community-dwelling elderly women were randomly allocated to either an experimental or a control group. Experimental subjects performed a multicomponent exercise program that consisted of balance, strengthening, and stretching exercises for 4 weeks, whereas the control subjects did not perform any specific exercise. The subjects' level of physical fitness was assessed prior to and after training using the Senior Fitness Test, which assesses muscle strength, flexibility, dynamic balance/agility, aerobic endurance, and body composition. (more)


Effects of two exercise protocols on postural balance of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
By: Mesquita LS, de Carvalho FT, Freire LS, Neto OP, Zângaro RA.
BMC Geriatr. 2015 Jun 2;15:61.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
The aging process reduces both sensory capabilities and the capabilities of the motor systems responsible for postural control, resulting in a high number of falls among the elderly. Some therapeutic interventions can directly interrupt this process, including physical exercise. This study compares and examines the effects of two exercise protocols on the balance of elderly women. (more)


Fascial Manipulation® for chronic aspecific low back pain: a single blinded randomized controlled trial
By: Branchini M, Lopopolo F, Andreoli E, Loreti I, Marchand AM, Stecco A.
Version 2. F1000Res. 2015 Nov 3 [revised 2016 Jan 8];4:1208.
This article is referred to in the course Fascial Manipulation offered by Carl Heldman

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Abstract:
The therapeutic approach to chronic aspecific low back pain (CALBP) has to consider the multifactorial aetiology of the disorder. International guidelines do not agree on unequivocal treatment indications. Recommendations for fascial therapy are few and of low level evidence but several studies indicate strong correlations between fascial thickness and low back pain. This study aims at comparing the effectiveness of Fascial Manipulation® associated with a physiotherapy program following guidelines for CALBP compared to a physiotherapy program alone. (more)


Physical activity and sport participation: A systematic review of the impact of fatherhood
By: Pot N, Keizer R.
Prev Med Rep. 2016 May 31;4:121-7.


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Abstract:
Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA), including sport participation, is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Scholars have devoted considerable attention to understanding the impact of parenthood on MVPA, albeit only for women. As the impact of fatherhood on men's lives is drawing more and more scholarly and societal attention, the aim of the current article is to provide an systematic overview of studies examining the impact of fatherhood on MVPA. (more)


The association between generalized joint hypermobility and active horizontal shoulder abduction in 10-15 year old competitive swimmers
By: Junge T, Henriksen P, Andersen HL, Byskov LD, Knudsen HK, Juul-Kristensen B.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2016 Jul 12;8:19.
This article is referred to in the course The Mechanics of Swimming offered by Marilyn M. Pink and USA Swimming Foundation:

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Abstract:
Increased shoulder mobility and Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) are assumed to be predisposing risk factors for shoulder injuries. The association between GJH and shoulder mobility among competitive swimmers is unknown. The aim was to study the association between GJH and active horizontal shoulder abduction (AHSA) in young, competitive swimmers and to describe normative values of AHSA in this group. (more)


Effect of complete decongestive therapy and home program on health-related quality of life in post-mastectomy lymphedema patients
By: Melam GR, Buragadda S, Alhusaini AA, Arora N.
BMC Womens Health. 2016 May 4;16:23.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Secondary lymphedema is common in women treated for breast cancer. It may be a result of surgery or radiotherapy. Edema commonly affects the arm, leading to discomfort, reduced arm movements, pain and diminished quality of life. Therefore, the relationship between post-mastectomy lymphedema and quality of life has evolved as an important criteria in treatment of breast cancer survivors. In this study, remedial exercises and home program, in addition to manual lymphatic drainage and compression bandaging, resulted in improved quality of life. Early identification of lymphedema and incorporation of remedial exercises and a home program improve the quality of life for breast cancer survivors. (more)


Effects of kinesio tape compared with non-elastic tape on hand grip strength
By: Kim JY, Kim SY.
Made available by PubMed.
J Phys Ther Sci. 2016;28(5):1565-8.
This article is referred to in the course Clinical Kinesiology Taping Fundamentals offered by Cindy Bailey

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Abstract:
Many assumptions have been made about taping and several studies have considered tape application methods; however, the true effect of taping on muscle strength remains unclear. Most previous studies compared application techniques using Kinesio tape (KT), but studies that compared muscle strength using non-elastic tape (NT) are limited. Moreover, no studies have applied KT and NT in the same way to assess grip strength in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of application of two tapes with different elastic properties on maximal grip strength in healthy adults. (more)


Effects of scapula-upward taping using kinesiology tape in a patient with shoulder pain caused by scapular downward rotation
By: Kim BJ, Lee JH.
Made available by PubMed.
J Phys Ther Sci. 2015 Feb;27(2):547-8.
This article is referred to in the course Clinical Kinesiology Taping Fundamentals offered by Cindy Bailey

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Abstract:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of scapula-upward taping (SUT) in a patient with shoulder pain caused by scapular downward rotation (SDR). (more)


The interaction between statins and exercise: mechanisms and strategies to counter the musculoskeletal side effects of this combination therapy.
By: Deichmann RE, Lavie CJ, Asher T, DiNicolantonio JJ, O'Keefe JH, Thompson PD.
Ochsner J. 2015 Winter;15(4):429-37.
This article is referred to in the course Pharmacology for Rehabilitation Therapists offered by Lynn Wecker

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Abstract:
Broad indications for the use of statin medications are resulting in more patients using these therapies. Simultaneously, healthcare professionals are strongly advocating recommendations to increase exercise training (ET) as a means of decreasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and improving other parameters of fitness. This study reviews the literature to explore mechanisms that may increase the risk of statin/ET interactions, examine the benefits and risks of combining ET and statin use, and offer strategies to minimize the hazards of this combination therapy. (more)


Development and validation of a swimmer’s functional pain scale
By: Drake SM, Krabak B, Edelman GT, Pounders E, Robinson S, Wixson B.
J Swim Res. 2015:23;21-32.
This article is referred to in the course The Mechanics of Swimming offered by Marilyn M. Pink and USA Swimming Foundation:

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Abstract:
Swimmers frequently complain of shoulder pain sometime during their careers. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-administered questionnaire that measures pain and functional status of the shoulder in swimmers that may alert a coach or swimmer to seek follow up with a healthcare provider. (more)


Cycling on a bike desk positively influences cognitive performance
By: Torbeyns T, de Geus B, Bailey S, De Pauw K, Decroix L, Van Cutsem J, Meeusen R.
PLoS One. 2016 Nov 2;11(11):e0165510.


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Abstract:
Cycling desks as a means to reduce sedentary time in the office has gained interest as excessive sitting has been associated with several health risks. However, the question rises if people will still be as efficient in performing their desk-based office work when combining this with stationary cycling. Therefore, the effect of cycling at 30% Wmax on typing, cognitive performance and brain activity was investigated. (more)


Continuing education and me!
By: Marilyn M. Pink, PT, Ph.D.
Physical Therapy Products. July 2012.


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Abstract:
What do you think of the CE requirements for relicensure? Do we need them? Do they help us treat our patients better? Our CEO discusses the approval of continuing education, the tracking of CE completion, and how much PTs learn from various types of CE. (more)


Spinal manipulation and mobilisation for back and neck pain: a blinded review.
By: Koes BW, Assendelft WJ, van der Heijden GJ, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG.
Made available by PubMed.
BMJ. 1991 Nov 23;303(6813):1298-303.
This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of spinal manipulation for patients with back or neck pain. No trial scored 60 or more points (maximum score 100) suggesting that most were of poor quality. Eighteen studies (51%) showed favourable results for manipulation. In addition, five studies (14%) reported positive results in one or more subgroups. Of the four studies with 50-60 points, one reported that manipulation was better, two reported that manipulation was better in only a subgroup, and one reported that manipulation was no better or worse than reference treatment. Eight trials attempted to compare manipulation with some placebo, with inconsistent results. Although some results are promising, the efficacy of manipulation has not been convincingly shown. Further trials are needed, but much more attention should be paid to the methods of study. (more)


The incremental shuttle walking test in elderly people with chronic airflow limitation.
By: Dyer CA, Singh SJ, Stockley RA, Sinclair AJ, Hill SL.
Thorax. 2002 Jan;57(1):34-8.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
There is a concern that comorbidity or frailty in older people could limit the usefulness of currently available exercise tests for chronic lung disease. This study evaluated the feasibility and reproducibility of the incremental shuttle walking test (SWT) in people aged 70 years or over, compared exercise tolerance with other disability markers, and assessed whether the SWT is responsive to change after bronchodilators. (more)


Applied biomechanics of swimming
By: Pink MM, Edelman GT, Mark R, Rodeo SA.
In: Magee DJ, Manske RC, Zachazewski JE, Quillen WS, ed. Athletic and Sport Issues in Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2011:331-49.


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Abstract:
When clinicians think "overhead athlete," swimming is one of the sports that come to mind. Some of the other sports include throwing and pitching, volleyball, and tennis. In the past, the mechanics of the "overhead athlete" were sometimes viewed collectively. Most of the “overhead” sports are mechanically at risk during humeral abduction and elevation with external rotation. That is not the case with the swimmer. It is now clear that the requirements of each sport are distinct, and the precise requirements are able to be defined. Thus, this chapter provides an opportunity to describe the specific biomechanics of swimming as they relate to the clinician. (more)


The effectiveness of the McKenzie method in addition to first-line care for acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial
By: Machado LA, Maher CG, Herbert RD, Clare H, McAuley JH.
BMC Med. 2010 Jan 26;8:10.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
Low back pain is a highly prevalent and disabling condition worldwide. Clinical guidelines for the management of patients with acute low back pain recommend first-line treatment consisting of advice, reassurance and simple analgesics. Exercise is also commonly prescribed to these patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of adding the McKenzie method to the first-line care of patients with acute low back pain. (more)


Diagnosing painful sacroiliac joints: a validity study of a McKenzie evaluation and sacroiliac provocation tests
By: Laslett M, Young SB, Aprill CN, McDonald B.
Aust J Physiother. 2003;49(2):89-97.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
Research suggests that clinical examination of the lumbar spine and pelvis is unable to predict the results of diagnostic injections used as reference standards. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a clinical examination in identifying symptomatic and asymptomatic sacroiliac joints using double diagnostic injections as the reference standard. (more)


Critical analysis of vestibular rehabilitation outcome according to dizziness etiology
By: Bittar RS, Pedalini ME, Ramalho JO, Yoshimura R.
Made available by SciELO.org.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Nov-Dec;73(6):760-4.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is an excellent therapy for dizziness patients. However, despite being well-managed, sometimes the results are not suitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate VR outcome between patients according to dizziness etiology. The study design was a retrospective review of medical records. (more)


Managing cancer pain with nonpharmacologic and complementary therapies
By: Pujol LA, Monti DA.
J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2007 Dec;107(12 Suppl 7):ES15-21.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Nonpharmacologic interventions are important adjuncts to treatment modalities for patients with cancer pain. This article reviews several nonpharmacologic and complementary and alternative modalities commonly used by patients with cancer pain. It focuses on those having empirical support or promising preliminary evidence, with the goal of familiarizing physicians with therapies that may complement regular oncologic care. (more)


The endurance shuttle walk test: an alternative to the six-minute walk test for the assessment of ambulatory oxygen
By: Revill SM, Noor MZ, Butcher G, Ward MJ.
Chron Respir Dis. 2010;7(4):239-45.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
UK guidelines for domiciliary oxygen have suggested the six-minute walk test or shuttle walk tests as suitable functional measures for the clinical assessment of ambulatory oxygen (AO). The endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) is used increasingly as an assessment tool within pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), but its potential as an investigative test for AO has not been explored. Using the same test for both PR and AO assessment is appealing since it would improve efficiency and act to standardise outcome measures in this patient population. The aim of this study was to examine the responsiveness and repeatability of the ESWT to AO and to compare the response with that of the six-minute walk test (6MWT). (more)


Consequences of scapular anatomy for reversed total shoulder arthroplasty
By: Middernacht B, De Roo PJ, Van Maele G, De Wilde LF.
Made available by PubMed.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Jun;466(6):1410-8.


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Abstract:
The reverse total shoulder prosthesis provides successful functional outcome in many patients with rotator cuff tear arthropathy. However, scapular notching, a direct consequence of mechanical impingement between the humeral prosthesis and the glenoid, remains a major concern. We presumed a better knowledge of the anatomy of the scapula would enable design or placement modifications to minimize this phenomenon. (more)


Contribution of the reverse endoprosthesis to glenohumeral kinematics
By: Bergmann JH, de Leeuw M, Janssen TW, Veeger DH, Willems WJ.
Made available by PubMed.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Mar;466(3):594-8.


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Abstract:
After placement of a reverse shoulder endoprosthesis, range of motion is usually still compromised. To what extent this occurs from limitation in motion of the reverse endoprosthesis is, however, unclear. We measured the motion pattern of 16 patients (18 shoulders) during three active and passive range of motion tasks using a six degree-of-freedom electromagnetic tracking device. (more)


Evolution of the reverse total shoulder prosthesis
By: Jazayeri R, Kwon YW.
Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis. 2011;69(1):50-5.


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Abstract:
Over the last decade, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has gained significant popularity due to its ability to address difficult reconstructive shoulder problems that could not be adequately treated in the past. Though results of new prostheses demonstrate promising outcomes, many controversies and challenges continue to be refined. An historical review of the evolution of reverse shoulder arthroplasty is presented, as well as the currently expanding indications for its application. (more)


Reverse shoulder arthroplasty
By: Smithers CJ, Young AA, Walch G.
Made available by PubMed.
Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2011 Dec;4(4):183-90.


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Abstract:
The reverse shoulder arthroplasty emerged as a potential solution for those patients who could not be managed effectively with a conventional total shoulder arthroplasty. Long-term studies of the technique are starting to emerge, demonstrating good survivorship, but progressive functional and radiographic deterioration continue to be concerning. (more)


Rotator cuff deficient arthritis of the glenohumeral joint
By: Macaulay AA, Greiwe RM, Bigliani LU.
Clin Orthop Surg. 2010 Dec;2(4):196-202.


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Abstract:
Rotator cuff deficient arthritis of the glenohumeral joint, especially cuff tear arthropathy, has proved a challenging clinical entity for orthopaedic surgeons ever since Charles Neer originally detailed the problem in 1983. Understanding has improved regarding the pathophysiology and pathomechanics underlying cuff tear arthropathy. In this article the history and pathophysiology of cuff tear arthropathy are reviewed. Additionally, the clinical findings and results of surgical reconstruction are discussed. (more)


Total shoulder arthroplasty
By: Sanchez-Sotelo J.
Open Orthop J. 2011 Mar 16;5:106-14.


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Abstract:
Shoulder arthroplasty has been the subject of marked advances over the last few years. Modern implants provide a wide range of options, including resurfacing of the humeral head, anatomic hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, reverse shoulder arthroplasty and trauma-specific implants for fractures and nonunions. (more)


What is a successful outcome following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty?
By: Roy JS, Macdermid JC, Goel D, Faber KJ, Athwal GS, Drosdowech DS.
Open Orthop J. 2010 Apr 23;4:157-63.


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Abstract:
With variations in joint destruction, patient expectations and health status, it can be difficult to interpret outcomes following arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between different outcome indicators in 44 patients followed for two years after a reverse shoulder arthroplasty. (more)


Nucleus pulposus deformation following application of mechanical diagnosis and therapy: a single case report with magnetic resonance imaging
By: Takasaki H, May S, Fazey PJ, Hall T.
Made available by JMMT.
J Man Manip Ther. 2010 Sep;18(3):153-8.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
The McKenzie management strategy of mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT) is commonly used for the assessment and management of spinal problems. Within this system, 'derangement syndrome' is the most common classification, for which the conceptual model is an intra-discal displacement. However, the reduction of an intra-discal displacement by MDT has never been documented. The purpose of this study was to compare, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the nucleus pulposus (NP) profiles before and after the use of this approach. (more)


Standards of medical care in diabetes — 2012
By: Editor.
Diabetes Care. 2012 Jan;35 Suppl 1:S11-63.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and ongoing patient self-management education and support to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. (more)


Injuries in water polo
By: Franic M, Ivkovic A, Rudic R.
Croat Med J. 2007 Jun;48(3):281-8.


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Abstract:
The modern game of water polo is a unique combination of swimming, throwing, and martial arts. Water polo is becoming more physical than ever, resulting in a number of typical acute traumatic events, as well as overuse injuries. This review covers the most important acute and overuse injuries in water polo by analyzing four different regions of the body: head, spine, upper extremities, and lower extremities. (more)


Eccentric exercise versus usual-care with older cancer survivors: the impact on muscle and mobility — an exploratory pilot study
By: LaStayo PC, Marcus RL, Dibble LE, Smith SB, Beck SL.
BMC Geriatr. 2011 Jan 27;11:5.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Resistance exercise programs with high compliance are needed to counter impaired muscle and mobility in older cancer survivors. To date outcomes have focused on older prostate cancer survivors, though more heterogeneous groups of older survivors are in-need. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study is to examine whether resistance exercise via negative eccentrically-induced work (RENEW) improves muscle and mobility in a diverse sample of older cancer survivors. (more)


Performance of A1C for the classification and prediction of diabetes
By: Selvin E, Steffes MW, Gregg E, Brancati FL, Coresh J.
Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan;34(1):84-9.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Although A1C is now recommended to diagnose diabetes, its test performance for diagnosis and prognosis is uncertain. Our objective was to assess the test performance of A1C against single and repeat glucose measurements for diagnosis of prevalent diabetes and for prediction of incident diabetes. (more)


Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement
By: Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B et al.
Diabetes Care. 2010 Dec;33(12):e147-67.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Although physical activity (PA) is a key element in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, many with this chronic disease do not become or remain regularly active. Structured interventions combining PA and modest weight loss have been shown to lower type 2 diabetes risk by up to 58% in high-risk populations. The benefits of physical training are discussed, along with recommendations for varying activities, PA-associated blood glucose management, diabetes prevention, gestational diabetes mellitus, and safe and effective practices for PA with diabetes-related complications. (more)


Reliability of the 8-repetition maximum test in men and women
By: Taylor JD, Fletcher JP.
J Sci Med Sport. 2012 Jan;15(1):69-73.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The 8-repetition maximum test has been recommended as a method of prescribing an intensity for resistance training in healthy adults, athletes, and patients with health conditions. Yet, limited research related to the reliability of 8-repetition maximum testing has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the 8-repetition maximum test in men and women. (more)


Lateral epicondylosis and calcific tendonitis in a golfer: a case report and literature review
By: Yuill EA, Lum G.
Made available by PubMed.
J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2011 Dec;55(4):325-32.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
The authors of this study detail the progress of a young female amateur golfer who developed chronic left arm pain while playing golf 8 months prior to her first treatment visit. Initial findings included pain slightly distal to the lateral epicondyle of the elbow, decreased grip strength, and positive orthopedic testing. Diagnostic ultrasound showed thickening of the common extensor tendon origin indicating lateral epicondylosis. Radiographs revealed an oval shaped calcified density in the soft tissue adjacent to the lateral humeral epicondyle, indicating calcific tendonitis of the common extensor tendon origin. (more)


Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus
By: ACCORD Study Group, Cushman WC, Evans GW et al.
N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 29;362(17):1575-85.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
There is no evidence from randomized trials to support a strategy of lowering systolic blood pressure below 135 to 140 mmHg in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether therapy targeting normal systolic pressure (i.e., < 120 mmHg) reduces major cardiovascular events in participants with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events. (more)


Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes
By: Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T et al.
N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 8;360(2):129-39.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The effects of intensive glucose control on cardiovascular events in patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus remain uncertain. We randomly assigned 1791 military veterans (mean age, 60.4 years) who had a suboptimal response to therapy for type 2 diabetes to receive either intensive or standard glucose control. The goal in the intensive-therapy group was an absolute reduction of 1.5 percentage points in the glycated hemoglobin level, as compared with the standard-therapy group. (more)


Review on the validity of self-report to assess work-related diseases
By: Lenderink AF, Zoer I, van der Molen HF, Spreeuwers D, Frings-Dresen MH, van Dijk FJ.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011 Jun 12.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases. Little is known on the validity of self-reported work-related illness as an indicator of the presence of a work-related disease. This study reviews the evidence on (1) the validity of workers' self-reported illness and (2) on the validity of workers' self-assessed work relatedness of an illness. (more)


Factors associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of diabetes in children and young adults: a systematic review
By: Usher-Smith JA, Thompson MJ, Sharp SJ, Walter FM.
BMJ. 2011 Jul 7;343:d4092.
This article is referred to in the course Physical Therapy for Children With Type 1 Diabetes offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
This study sought to identify the factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Cohort studies including unselected groups of children and young adults presenting with new onset type 1 diabetes that distinguished between those who presented in diabetic ketoacidosis and those who did not and included a measurement of either pH or bicarbonate in the definition of diabetic ketoacidosis. (more)


Assessing the benefits: outcome and future directions
By: Ambrosino N, Janah N, Gabbrielli L.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2011 Sep;47(3):499-505.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
Pulmonary rehabilitation is a relatively recent practice in pulmonary medicine, which is classically described as a multidisciplinary program of care for patients with chronic respiratory impairment. There is solid evidence of effectiveness for the pulmonary rehabilitation and, with lower level of evidence, for some of its specific components, such as exercise tolerance, symptoms, Health-Related Quality of Life, and health care need, with indirect evidence of positive effects on survival. One quarter to one third of patients do not have benefits from pulmonary rehabilitation, studies failing to identify any important predictors of treatment success or failure. Outcomes assessment in pulmonary rehabilitation is of main importance to evaluate its evidence-based effectiveness. (more)


Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy
By: Visovsky C, Collins M, Abbott L, Aschenbrenner J, Hart C.
Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2007 Dec;11(6):901-13.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) continues to be a significant, debilitating symptom resulting from the administration of neurotoxic chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. CIPN is an important consequence of cancer treatment because of its potential impact on physical functioning and quality of life. Despite investigations concerning pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches to either preventing or minimizing the neurotoxicity resulting from certain chemotherapeutic agents, evidence to support the interventions is lacking. This article presents information concerning CIPN and summarizes the evidence for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches to the prevention and treatment of CIPN. (more)


Specific directional exercises for patients with low back pain: a case series
By: Long A, May S, Fung T.
Made available by PubMed.
Physiother Can. 2008 Fall;60(4):307-17.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine whether outcomes could be changed after poor response to non-specific exercise therapy when the prescription was changed to specific, directional-preference exercises (McKenzie method). (more)


The efficacy of physiotherapy upon shoulder function following axillary dissection in breast cancer, a randomized controlled study
By: Beurskens CH, van Uden CJ, Strobbe LJ, Oostendorp RA, Wobbes T.
BMC Cancer. 2007 Aug 30;7:166.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Many patients suffer from severe shoulder complaints after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection. Physical therapy has been clinically observed to improve treatment of these patients; however, it is not a standard treatment regime. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of PT treatment of shoulder function, pain and quality of life in patients who have undergone breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection. (more)


The feasibility of performing resistance exercise with acutely ill hospitalized older adults
By: Mallery LH, MacDonald EA, Hubley-Kozey CL, Earl ME, Rockwood K, MacKnight C.
BMC Geriatr. 2003 Oct 7;3:3.
This article is referred to in the course Rehabilitation Pilates offered by Brent Anderson

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Abstract:
For older adults, hospitalization frequently results in deterioration of mobility and function. Nevertheless, there are little data about how older adults exercise in the hospital and definitive studies are not yet available to determine what type of physical activity will prevent hospital related decline. Strengthening exercise may prevent deconditioning and Pilates exercise, which focuses on proper body mechanics and posture, may promote safety. (more)


ATS statement: guidelines for the 6-minute walk test.
By: ATS Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jul 1;166(1):111-7.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
This statement provides practical guidelines for the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Specifically, it reviews indications, details factors that influence results, presents a brief step-by-step protocol, outlines safety measures, describes proper patient preparation and procedures, and offers guidelines for clinical interpretation of results. These recommendations are not intended to limit the use of alternative protocols for research studies. We do not discuss the general topic of clinical exercise testing. (more)


Benefits of supervised group exercise programme for women being treated for early stage breast cancer: pragmatic randomised controlled trial.
By: Mutrie N, Campbell AM, Whyte F, et al.
BMJ. 2007 Mar 10;334(7592):517.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine functional and psychological benefits of a 12 week supervised group exercise programme during treatment for early stage breast cancer, with six month follow-up. The study concluded that supervised group exercise provided functional and psychological benefit after a 12 week intervention and six months later. Clinicians should encourage activity for their patients. Policy makers should consider the inclusion of exercise opportunities in cancer rehabilitation services. (more)


Optimal load for increasing muscle power during explosive resistance training in older adults
By: de Vos NJ, Singh NA, Ross DA, Stavrinos TM, Orr R, Fiatarone Singh MA.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005 May;60(5):638-47.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
Peak muscle power may be improved similarly using light, moderate, or heavy resistances, whereas there is a dose-response relationship between training intensity and muscle strength and endurance changes. Therefore, using heavy loads during explosive resistance training may be the most effective strategy to achieve simultaneous improvements in muscle strength, power, and endurance in older adults. (more)


Dizziness: a screening examination and differential diagnostic decision-making process for physiotherapists
By: Landel R.
Physiotherapy Singapore. 2002;5(3):46-50.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
Complaints of dizziness in a patient are not uncommon. The prevalence of dizziness in the community ranges from 1.8% in young adults to more than 30% in the elderly. The physiotherapist often uncovers a complaint of dizziness in the course of providing treatment for another disorder. The purpose of this article is to present the possible causes for complaints of dizziness and offer a process for the physical therapist to determine the appropriate course of action. (more)


Functional anatomy of the flexor pronator muscle group in relation to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow
By: Davidson PA, Pink M, Perry J, Jobe FW.
Am J Sports Med. 1995 Mar-Apr;23(2):245-50.
This article is referred to in the course The Process of Progress offered by Marilyn M. Pink and Frank W. Jobe

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Abstract:
To describe the relationship of the pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, flexor digitorum superficialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles to the medial collateral ligament at 30 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees of elbow flexion, we dissected 11 cadaveric specimens. (more)


Subacute and chronic, non-specific back and neck pain: cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation versus primary care. A randomized controlled trial
By: Lindell O, Johansson SE, Strender LE.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008 Dec 30;9:172.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
In the industrial world, non-specific back and neck pain (BNP) is the largest diagnostic group underlying sick-listing. For patients with subacute and chronic BNP, cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation was compared with primary care. The specific aim was to answer the question: within an 18-month follow-up, will the outcomes differ in respect of sick-listing and number of health-care visits? (more)


Effects of conventional versus multimodal vestibular rehabilitation on functional capacity and balance control in older people with chronic dizziness from vestibular disorders: design of a randomized clinical trial
By: Aquaroni Ricci N, Aratani MC, Caovilla HH, Freitas Ganança F.
Trials. 2012 Dec 31;13:246.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
There are several protocols designed to treat vestibular disorders that focus on habituation, substitution, adaptation, and compensation exercises. However, protocols that contemplate not only vestibular stimulation but also other components that are essential to the body balance control in older people are rare. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two vestibular rehabilitation protocols (conventional versus multimodal) on the functional capacity and body balance control of older people with chronic dizziness due to vestibular disorders. (more)


Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study
By: de Moraes SA, Soares WJ, Ferriolli E, Perracini MR.
BMC Geriatr. 2013 Jan 4;13:4.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However, a profile of dizziness is still uncertain, which hampers clinical decision-making. The authors sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. (more)


Differential diagnosis and early management of rapidly progressing hip pain in a 59-year-old male
By: Wright A, O'Hearn MA.
Made available by PubMed.
J Man Manip Ther. 2012 May;20(2):96-101.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
Rapidly progressing degeneration of the hip joint is an uncommon condition presenting to physical therapy. Differential diagnosis can often be difficult, as clinical and radiographic findings do not always coincide leaving clinicians with difficult decision making regarding course of treatment. The purpose of this case report was to describe the differential diagnosis and early management of a patient with rapidly progressing hip pain. (more)


Scapular contribution for the end-range of shoulder axial rotation in overhead athletes
By: Ribeiro A, Pascoal AG.
J Sports Sci Med. 2012 Dec 1;11(4):676-81.
This article is referred to in the course The Shoulder Complex offered by Marilyn M. Pink

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Abstract:
The aim of this study was to analyze the relative contribution of the scapular motion on the extreme range-of-motion of shoulder external and internal rotation, in overhead athletes. An electromagnetic tracking device (Flock of Birds) was used to record humeral and scapular kinematics. The dominant arm of 26 male subjects (13 athletes and 13 non-athletes) was studied while subjects actively reached end-range of internal and external rotation. (more)


Clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer rehabilitation: syntheses of guideline recommendations and qualitative appraisals.
By: Harris SR, Schmitz KH, Campbell KL, McNeely ML.
Cancer. 2012 Apr 15;118(8 Suppl):2312-24.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Despite strides in early detection and management of breast cancer, the primary treatments for this disease continue to result in physical impairments for some of the nearly 3 million people diagnosed annually. Over the past decade, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed with goals of preventing and ameliorating these impairments. However, translation of these guidelines into clinical practice needs to be accelerated. The authors summarized recommendations from 19 relevant CPGs, first by impairment within tables; and then by commonalities across guidelines, within each impairment. The CPGs were rated using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II); wide variability was noted in rigor of development, clarity of presentation, and stakeholder involvement. The most rigorous and comprehensive of those rated was the adult cancer pain guideline from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. (more)


Guideline for diagnosis and treatment of subacromial pain syndrome: a multidisciplinary review by the Dutch Orthopaedic Association
By: Diercks R, Bron C, Dorrestijn O, et al.
Acta Orthop. 2014 Jun;85(3):314-22.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
Treatment of "subacromial impingement syndrome" of the shoulder has changed drastically in the past decade. The anatomical explanation as "impingement" of the rotator cuff is not sufficient to cover the pathology. "Subacromial pain syndrome," SAPS, describes the condition better. A working group formed from a number of Dutch specialist societies, joined by the Dutch Orthopedic Association, has produced a guideline based on the available scientific evidence. This resulted in a new outlook for the treatment of subacromial pain syndrome. (more)


Adverse events after manual therapy among patients seeking care for neck and/or back pain: a randomized controlled trial
By: Paanalahti K, Holm LW, Nordin M, Asker M, Lyander J, Skillgate E.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014 Mar 12;15:77.
This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
The safety of the manual treatment techniques such as spinal manipulation has been discussed and there is a need for more information about potential adverse events after manual therapy. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate differences in occurrence of adverse events between three different combinations of manual treatment techniques used by manual therapists (i.e. chiropractors, naprapaths, osteopaths, physicians and physiotherapists) for patients seeking care for back and/or neck pain. In addition, women and men were compared regarding the occurrence of adverse events. (more)


Effects of physiotherapy on balance and unilateral vestibular hypofunction in vertiginous elderly
By: Rocha Júnior PR, da Silva Peres A, Garbi FP, Frizzo AC, Valenti VE.
Int Arch Med. 2014 Feb 27;7(1):8.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
This study aimed to analyze the effect of a physical therapy protocol on unilateral vestibular hypofunction and overall balance in elderly with vertigo. The study used the performance-oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), to evaluate balance and the Unterberger - Fukuda test for analysis of unilateral vestibular dysfunction through rotations and displacements of the body. The authors developed and applied a structured physical therapy protocol, consisting of group exercises. (more)


Early mobilization of patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a retrospective cohort study
By: Abrams D, Javidfar J, Farrand E, et al.
Crit Care. 2014 Feb 27;18(1):R38.
This article is referred to in the course From Vent to Rehab: Treatment of the ICU Patient offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
Critical illness is a well-recognized cause of neuromuscular weakness and impaired physical functioning. Physical therapy has been demonstrated to be safe and effective for critically ill patients, but the impact of such an intervention on patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has not been well characterized. This paper investigates the feasibility and impact of active PT on ECMO patients. (more)


The effects of a complex exercise program with the visual block on the walking and balance abilities of elderly people
By: Kim JY, Park SD, Song HS.
J Phys Ther Sci. 2014 Dec;26(12):2007-9.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a complex exercise program for elderly people who had experienced a fall on their balance, gait, vestibular senses, and proprioceptive senses when their visual sense was blocked. The authors concluded that the complex exercise program for elderly people helped enhance their balance ability and gait, and improved their vestibular sense. (more)


Out-of-hospital 12-lead ECG
By: American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP).
Ann Emerg Med. 2013 Oct;62(4):447.
This article is referred to in the course Arrhythmia & ECG Interpretations for Healthcare Professionals offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) believes that the out-of-hospital 12-lead ECG may facilitate early identification of patients with acute coronary syndromes. This set of guidelines explains why. (more)


Standardizing the analysis of physical activity in patients with COPD following a pulmonary rehabilitation program
By: Demeyer H, Burtin C, Van Remoortel H, Hornikx M, Langer D, Decramer M, Gosselink R, Janssens W, Troosters T.
Chest. 2014 Aug;146(2):318-27.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
There is a wide variability in measurement methodology of physical activity. This study investigated the effect of different analysis techniques on the statistical power of physical activity outcomes after pulmonary rehabilitation. (more)


Effects of a fall prevention exercise program on muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly
By: Cho SI, An DH.
Made available by PubMed.
J Phys Ther Sci. 2014 Nov;26(11):1771-4.
This article is referred to in the course Fall Prevention offered by Mindy Renfro

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week balance exercise and elastic-resistance exercise program on muscle strength and balance of the old-old elderly (over the age of 75). Fifty-five elderly persons were recruited from the community and assigned to three groups for convenience: balance exercise, resistance exercise, and control groups. The intervention was performed twice a week at a senior center and three times a week at home for 8 weeks. Muscle strength and balance were evaluated before and at the end of the trial. (more)


Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review
By: Meneses-Echávez JF, González-Jiménez E, Ramírez-Vélez R.
J Physiother. 2015 Jan;61(1):3-9.
This article is referred to in the course Aerobic Conditioning in the Acute Care Setting offered by Laura Blood and Ashley Donovan

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Abstract:
The authors study sought to answer the question, "Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue?" The study was a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. The participants included people diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. (more)


Lymphedema prevalence and treatment benefits in cancer: impact of a therapeutic intervention on health outcomes and costs
By: Brayton KM, Hirsch AT, O Brien PJ, Cheville A, Karaca-Mandic P, Rockson SG.
PLoS One. 2014 Dec 3;9(12):e114597.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer therapeutics; its prevalence, treatment outcomes, and costs have been poorly defined. The objective of this study was to examine lymphedema prevalence among cancer survivors and to characterize changes in clinical outcomes and costs associated with a defined therapeutic intervention (use of a pneumatic compression devices [PCD]) in a representative, privately insured population. (more)


Effectiveness of a home exercise program in combination with ultrasound therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders
By: Ucar M, Sarp Ü, Koca I, et al.
Made available by PubMed.
J Phys Ther Sci. 2014 Dec;26(12):1847-9.
This article is referred to in the course The Temporomandibular Joint offered by Carl Heldman

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Abstract:
This study compared the effectiveness of home exercise alone versus home exercise combined with ultrasound for patients with temporomandibular joint disorders. (more)


Patients' experience of health three years after structured physiotherapy or surgery for lumbar disc herniation
By: Limbäck Svensson G, Kjellby Wendt G, Thomeé R, Danielson E.
J Rehabil Med. 2013 Mar;45(3):293-9.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
The authors set out to describe the experience of health among patients 3 years after treatment with a structured physiotherapy model or surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Findings were grouped into two themes: feeling of well-being and feeling of ill-being. In the group treated with structured physiotherapy there were a high number of codes in the feeling of well-being theme. In the group treated with surgery there were a high number of codes in the feeling of ill-being theme. (more)


Transforaminal epidural steroid injections followed by mechanical diagnosis and therapy to prevent surgery for lumbar disc herniation
By: van Helvoirt H, Apeldoorn AT, Ostelo RW, et al.
Pain Med. 2014 Jul;15(7):1100-8.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to report the clinical course of patients with MRI-confirmed lumbar disc herniation-related radicular noncentralizing pain who received transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TESIs) and mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT). The results indicated that a course of TESIs followed by MDT may be able to avoid surgery in a substantial proportion of candidates for herniated lumbar disc surgery. (more)


Conservative and dietary interventions for cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis
By: McNeely ML, Peddle CJ, Yurick JL, Dayes IS, Mackey JR.
Cancer. 2011 Mar 15;117(6):1136-48.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
The findings support the use of compression garments and compression bandaging for reducing lymphedema volume in upper and lower extremity cancer-related lymphedema. Specific to breast cancer, a statistically significant, clinically small beneficial effect was found from the addition of manual lymph drainage massage to compression therapy for upper extremity lymphedema volume. (more)


Effects of manual lymphatic drainage on breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
By: Huang TW, Tseng SH, Lin CC, et al.
World J Surg Oncol. 2013 Jan 24;11:15.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Lymphedema is a common complication of axillary dissection for breast cancer. The authors investigated whether manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) could prevent or manage limb edema in women after breast-cancer surgery. They performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effectiveness of MLD in the prevention and treatment of breast-cancer-related lymphedema. (more)


A 12-week rehabilitation program improves body composition, pain sensation, and internal/external torques of baseball pitchers with shoulder impingement symptom
By: Cha JY, Kim JH, Hong J, Choi YT, Kim MH, Cho JH, Ko IG, Jee YS.
J Exerc Rehabil. 2014 Feb 28;10(1):35-44.
This article is referred to in the course The Shoulder Complex offered by Marilyn M. Pink

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Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program on body composition, shoulder pain, and isokinetic internal/external torques of pitchers with impingement syndrome. The authors worked with 30 pitchers over the 12-week period. They concluded that their rehabilitation program reduced the shoulder pain, improved the body composition and enhanced the isokinetic shoulder internal/external rotators in those with impingement symptoms. The study also suggested that the rehabilitation program evened out the ratio between internal and external rotators and lowered the fatigue level after the experiment. (more)


Painful os acromiale: Conservative management in a young swimmer athlete
By: Frizziero A, Benedetti MG, Creta D, Moio A, Galletti S, Maffulli N.
J Sports Sci Med. 2012 Jun 1;11(2):352-6.
This article is referred to in the course The Shoulder in Sports offered by Marilyn M. Pink

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Abstract:
This case report presents the successful management of a painful os acromiale (OA) associated to rotator cuff impingement in a competitive swimmer, based on ultrasonographic diagnosis and conservative management. Rest from sport activity, oral anti-inflammatory drugs and previous attempt of treatment of shoulder pain were ineffective. This paper details the successful, conservative two-month treatment program that allowed the athlete to return to swimming and stay pain-free. (more)


Eccentric training as a new approach for rotator cuff tendinopathy: Review and perspectives
By: Camargo PR, Alburquerque-Sendín F, Salvini TF.
World J Orthop. 2014 Nov 18;5(5):634-44.
This article is referred to in the course The Mechanics of Swimming offered by Marilyn M. Pink and USA Swimming Foundation:

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Abstract:
Excessive mechanical loading is considered the major cause of rotator cuff tendinopathy. Although tendon problems are very common, they are not always easy to treat. Eccentric training has been proposed as an effective conservative treatment for the Achilles and patellar tendinopathies, but less evidence exists about its effectiveness for the rotator cuff tendinopathy. (more)


The thoracolumbar fascia: anatomy, function and clinical considerations
By: Willard FH, Vleeming A, Schuenke MD, Danneels L, Schlelp L.
J Anat. 2012 Dec;221(6):507-36.
This article is referred to in the course Fascial Manipulation offered by Carl Heldman

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Abstract:
In this overview, new and existent material on the organization and composition of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) will be evaluated in respect to its anatomy, innervation biomechanics and clinical relevance. The integration of the passive connective tissues of the TLF and active muscular structures surrounding this structure are discussed, and the relevance of their mutual interactions in relation to low back and pelvic pain reviewed. (more)


The use of rehabilitation among patients with breast cancer: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study
By: Lin YH, Pan PJ.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Aug 28;12:282.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Along with improvements in treatment, the number of women who survive breast cancer has increased. Rehabilitation can alleviate post-treatment side effects and maintain quality of life. This study aimed to explore the use of rehabilitation among a cohort of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. (more)


ANR: Making the right mechanical diagnosis with MDT
By: Chase C.
The MDT World Press. 2012; 1(1):10-3.
This article is referred to in the course Central Cervical Pain offered by Christopher Chase

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Abstract:
Therapists constantly challenge themselves to provide high quality, cost-effective, physical therapy treatment. This case study details the challenges the author faced in determining the patient's problems. (more)


Don’t ever discount the value of MDT evaluation with the elderly.
By: Chase C.
The MDT World Press. 2012; 1(3):8-9.
This article is referred to in the course Central Cervical Pain offered by Christopher Chase

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Abstract:
This case study looks at an elderly woman who was a part of a multi-centered observational study looking at the prevalence of centralization and directional preference in the elderly who suffer from low back pain. (more)


Everything you always wanted to know about hips but were afraid to ask.
By: Aytona C, Chase C, Miller M.
The MDT World Press. 2013; 2(3):4.
This article is referred to in the course Central Cervical Pain offered by Christopher Chase

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Abstract:
This brief article summarizes four different way to teach clinicians about treating the hip joint with MDT. (more)


Profile of the elderly in physical therapy and its relation to functional disability
By: Rossi AL, Pereira VS, Driusso P, Rebelatto JR, Ricci NA.
Made available by SciELO.
Braz J Phys Ther. 2013 Jan-Feb;17(1):77-85.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
As the population ages, changes occur in the epidemiological profile towards the current predominance of chronic degenerative diseases which, when untreated, lead to loss of functional capacity and require long-term assistance. The authors identified several factors that can contribute to such problems: sedentary lifestyle, presence of dizziness, polypharmacy and high pain intensity. They found that physical therapy can help with some of these factors and reduce the loss of functional capacity. (more)


Effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention on retention of functional fitness in older adults: a randomized-controlled cross-over design
By: Gudlaugsson J, Gudnason V, Aspelund T, et al.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012 Sep 10;9:107.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
Older adults have the highest rates of disability, functional dependence and use of healthcare resources. Training interventions for older individuals are of special interest where regular physical activity (PA) has many health benefits. The main purpose of this study was to assess the immediate and long-term effects of a 6-month multimodal training intervention (MTI) on functional fitness in old adults. (more)


Assessment of resistance torque and resultant muscular force during Pilates hip extension exercise and its implications to prescription and progression
By: Melo MO, Gomes LE, Silva YO, Bonezi A, Loss JF.
Made available by SciElo.
Braz J Phys Ther. 2011 Jan-Feb;15(1):23-30.
This article is referred to in the course Rehabilitation Pilates offered by Brent Anderson

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Abstract:
The authors of this paper evaluated the resistance torque (GR) during hip extension (HE) exercises performed on the Pilates Cadillac and performed a biomechanic analysis of the GR and the weighted mean moment arm (WMMA) in order to calculate the resultant muscle force (FMR) of the hip extensors and flexors. Their biomechanic analysis of HE exercises and the evaluation of mechanical features in relation to the hip joint may be used as an objective criteria for the prescription and progression of HE exercise in Pilates. (more)


Safety of cervical spine manipulation: are adverse events preventable and are manipulations being performed appropriately? A review of 134 case reports
By: Puentedura EJ, March J, Anders J, et al.
J Man Manip Ther. 2012;20(2):66-74.
This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly utilized intervention, but its use remains controversial. The authors analyzed all available documented case reports in the literature describing patients who had experienced severe adverse events (AEs) after receiving CSM to determine if the CSM was used appropriately, and if these types of AEs could have been prevented using sound clinical reasoning on the part of the clinician. (more)


Effect of Epley's maneuver on the quality of life of paroxismal positional benign vertigo patients
By: Pereira AB, Santos JN, Volpe FM.
Made available by SciElo.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2010 Nov-Dec;76(6):704-8.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
Quality of life (QoL) is significantly impaired by vertigo. The effect of specific treatments on QoL deserves investigation. AIM: To assess the effect of repositioning maneuvers on the QoL of benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study design consiting of reviews of charts of BPPV patients in a vestibular rehabilitation unit at a teaching institution in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, from 2007 to 2008. Pre- and post-therapy (Epley's repositioning maneuver) scores on the physical, functional and emotional dimensions of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) were analyzed. (more)


Regular multicomponent exercise increases physical fitness and muscle protein anabolism in frail, obese, older adults
By: Villareal DT, Smith GI, Sinacore DR, Shah K, Mittendorfer B.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Feb;19(2):312-8.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
Aging is associated with a decline in strength, endurance, balance, and mobility. Obesity worsens the age-related impairment in physical function and often leads to frailty. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends a multicomponent exercise program to maintain physical fitness, but the effect of such an exercise program on physical fitness on frail, obese older adults is not known. The authors studied the effect of a 3-month long multicomponent exercise training program, on endurance, muscle strength, muscle mass, and the rate of muscle protein synthesis in moderately frail, obese older adults. (more)


Which physical examination tests provide clinicians with the most value when examining the shoulder? Update of a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests
By: Hegedus EJ, Goode AP, Cook CE, Michener L, Myer CA, Myer DM, Wright AA.
Br J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;46(14):964-78.
This article is referred to in the course A Practical Approach to California PT Law, 2012 offered by James J. Dagostino

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Abstract:
Determining which tests to use when trying to determine the cause(s) of shoulder pain can be difficult, as there are many papers published on the topic. The authors of this paper aimed to update a previously published systematic review and meta-analysis by subjecting the literature on shoulder physical examination (ShPE) to careful analysis in order to determine each tests clinical utility. They added 32 new papers to their review. Where appropriate, data from the prior review and this review were combined to perform meta-analysis using the updated hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and bivariate models. (more)


Which physical examination tests provide clinicians with the most value when examining the shoulder? Update of a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests
By: Hegedus EJ, Goode AP, Cook CE, Michener L, Myer CA, Myer DM, Wright AA.
Br J Sports Med. 2012 Nov;46(14):964-78.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
Determining which tests to use when trying to determine the cause(s) of shoulder pain can be difficult, as there are many papers published on the topic. The authors of this paper aimed to update a previously published systematic review and meta-analysis by subjecting the literature on shoulder physical examination (ShPE) to careful analysis in order to determine each tests clinical utility. They added 32 new papers to their review. Where appropriate, data from the prior review and this review were combined to perform meta-analysis using the updated hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and bivariate models. (more)


Cancer patients’ needs for rehabilitation services
By: Thorsen L, Gjerset GM, Loge JH, et al.
Acta Oncol. 2011 Feb;50(2):212-22.
This article is referred to in the

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Abstract:
The authors sought to examine cancer patients' needs for rehabilitation services and factors associated with such needs, and secondly identify unmet needs for rehabilitation services and related factors. (more)


Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults
By: Villareal DT, Chode S, Parimi N, et al.
N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 31;364(13):1218-29.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
Obesity exacerbates the age-related decline in physical function and causes frailty in older adults; however, the appropriate treatment for obese older adults is controversial. In this trial, the authors evaluated the independent and combined effects of weight loss and exercise. (more)


Integrating evidence into practice: use of McKenzie-based treatment for mechanical low back pain
By: Dunsford A, Kumar S, Clarke S.
J Multidiscip Healthc. 2011;4:393-402.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
Low back pain (LBP) is a major health issue with significant socioeconomic implications in most Western countries. Within allied health, in particular physiotherapy, there has been a growing movement that recognizes the role of the McKenzie method in treating LBP. In this paper, we aim to integrate the evidence from current research, identified using a systematic review, and utilize a practical real-life case scenario to outline how evidence from the literature can be implemented in clinical practice. Unfortunately, gaps also persist in the literature on DP exercises; recognizing this dichotomy (modest evidence in some areas and evidence gaps in other areas), we outline how the evidence from the systematic review can be implemented in clinical practice. This approach builds on the philosophy of evidence-based practice of integrating research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. (more)


Population approaches to improve diet, physical activity, and smoking habits: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association
By: Mozaffarian D, Afshin A, Benowitz NL, et al.
Circulation. 2012 Sep 18;126(12):1514-63.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
Poor lifestyle behaviors, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use, are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other stakeholders to understand and implement the most effective approaches. (more)


Lymphedema beyond breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer-related secondary lymphedema
By: Cormier JN, Askew RL, Mungovan KS, Xing Y, Ross MI, Armer JM.
Cancer. 2010 Nov 15;116(22):5138-49.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Secondary lymphedema is a debilitating, chronic, progressive condition that commonly occurs after the treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the oncology-related literature excluding breast cancer to derive estimates of lymphedema incidence and to identify potential risk factors among various malignancies. (more)


Chronic peripheral oedema: the critical role of the lymphatic system.
By: Mortimer PS, Levick JR.
Clin Med. 2004 Sep-Oct;4(5):448-53.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Oedema is an excess of interstitial fluid and is an important sign of ill health in clinical medicine. In this article we propose a system for managing peripheral oedema, which is based on physiological principles that can then guide treatment. (more)


Code of Ethics
By: American Physical Therapy Association.
Revised 2009; effective date July 2010.
This article is referred to in the course Ethics for Healthcare Practitioners, 2012 offered by Stefanie Palma

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Abstract:
A communication plan to facilitate dissemination of and provide education on the revised "Code of Ethics" (Code) and "Standards of Ethical Conduct for the Physical Therapist Assistant" (Standards), adopted at the 2009 House of Delegates in June, is now available. The two APTA core documents have been expanded to better delineate the ethical obligations of all PTs and PTAs. The new "Code" and "Standards" go into effect July 1, 2010. (more)


The benefits of continuing education online.
By: Pink MM.
Rehab Management. 2010 Mar;23(2):32-33.


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Abstract:
Online CE raises several questions. What is it? Do people learn via online media? Is it a good thing? What are the obstacles? Where does it belong and where does it not belong? What does the future hold for online CE? The purpose of this article is to explore these issues and allow the reader to identify if and where online CE belongs in their learning experience. (more)


Running
By: Pink MM.
In: Perry J, Burnfield JM, ed. Gait Analysis: Normal and Pathological Function, 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK, Incorporated; 2010:385-99.


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Abstract:
While running is a natural extension of walking, the magnitude of difference mandates that running be studied separately. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to first describe the terminology and timing of the running phases, then to describe the ROM and muscle activation patterns in the lower extremity while running, followed by a description of the pressures borne by the foot. These discussions will focus on the “training pace” of recreational runners (approximately a 6.5-minute mile) in order to offer the widest applicability to the clinician. Once the mechanics of the training pace are discussed, then the relative differences to faster and slower paces will be introduced. (more)


Prevalence of classification methods for patients with lumbar impairments using the McKenzie syndromes, pain patter, manipulation, and stabilization clinical prediction rules
By: Werneke MW, Hart D, Oliver D, et al.
J Man Manip Ther. 2010;18(4):197-204.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
This research article is the recipient of the inaugural John Medeiros Award given by JMMT. This pivotal work is critical for all therapists working with patients with low back pain. The purpose of this study was to begin to compare common methods currently used to classify patients with non-specific low back pain during initial examination in the outpatient physical therapy setting. (more)


Does pulmonary rehabilitation address cardiovascular risk factors in patients with COPD?
By: Gale NS, Duckers JM, Enright S, Cockcroft JR, Shale DJ, Bolton CE.
BMC Pulm Med. 2011 Apr 21;11:20.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
Patients with COPD have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Whilst pulmonary rehabilitation has proven benefit for exercise tolerance and quality of life, any effect on cardiovascular risk has not been fully investigated. The study investigated whether pulmonary rehabilitation, through the exercise and nutritional intervention, would address these factors. (more)


Outcome measures of the 6 minute walk test: relationships with physiologic and computed tomography findings in patients with sarcoidosis
By: Alhamad EH, Shaik SA, Idrees MM, Alanezi MO, Isnani AC.
BMC Pulm Med. 2010 Aug 9;10:42.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
The authors assessed the relationship between physiologic parameters, computed tomography patterns, 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) and the distance-saturation product [DSP; defined as the product of the 6MWD and the lowest oxygen saturation during the 6 minute walk test (6MWT)]. In addition, they investigated factors affecting 6MWD in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (more)


Sustained effects of integrated COPD management on health status and exercise capacity in primary care patients
By: Kruis AL, van Adrichem J, Erkelens MR, Scheepers H, In 't Veen H, Muris JW, Chavannes NH.
Made available by PubMed.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2010 Nov 25;5:407-13.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a growing health care problem worldwide. Integrated disease management (IDM) of mild to moderate COPD patients has been demonstrated to improve exercise capacity and health status after one year, but long-term results are currently lacking in primary care. (more)


National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011
By: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.
This article is referred to in the course Physical Therapy for Children With Type 1 Diabetes offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Diabetes affects 25.8 million people, 8.3% of the U.S. population. 18.8 million people are diagnosed, while 7.0 million people are undiagnosed. The CDC has put together this fact sheet to compile the latest data on how this disease is affecting the U.S. population. (more)


Diabetes care in the school and day care setting
By: American Diabetes Association, Clarke W, Deeb LC, Jameson P, et al.
Diabetes Care. 2012 Jan;35 Suppl 1:S76-80.
This article is referred to in the course Physical Therapy for Children With Type 1 Diabetes offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. There are ~215,000 individuals < 20 years of age with diabetes in the U.S. The majority of these young people attend school and/or some type of day care and need knowledgeable staff to provide a safe school environment. Both parents and the health care team should work together to provide school systems and day care providers with the information necessary to allow children with diabetes to participate fully and safely in the school experience . (more)


Three-step treadmill test and McKenzie mechanical diagnosis and therapy to establish directional preference in a patient with lumbar spinal stenosis: a case report
By: Padmanabhan G, Sambasivan A, Desai MJ.
Made available by PubMed.
J Man Manip Ther. 2011 Feb;19(1):35-41.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is defined as narrowing of the spinal canal. LSS is commonly treated conservatively, primarily with flexion-based exercises. We present a patient diagnosed with LSS, refractory to a flexion-based protocol who ultimately responded to an extension-based protocol following establishment of directional preference with three-step treadmill testing. The case studies a 64-year-old male diagnosed with LSS, with a 2-year history of bilateral neurogenic claudication unresponsive to flexion-based exercises. (more)


Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity
By: Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, et al.
Circulation. 2009 Oct 20;120(16):1640-5.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. (more)


Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes
By: Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group, Gerstein HC, Miller ME et al.
N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2545-59.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Epidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between glycated hemoglobin levels and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether intensive therapy to target normal glycated hemoglobin levels would reduce cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or additional cardiovascular risk factors. (more)


Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes
By: ADVANCE Collaborative Group, Patel A, MacMahon S et al.
N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2560-72.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
In patients with type 2 diabetes, the effects of intensive glucose control on vascular outcomes remain uncertain. We randomly assigned 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes to undergo either standard glucose control or intensive glucose control. (more)


Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in African American and Caucasian men with type 2 diabetes
By: Kokkinos P, Myers J, Nylen E et al.
Diabetes Care. 2009 Apr;32(4):623-8.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between exercise capacity and mortality in African Americans and Caucasians with type 2 diabetes and to explore racial differences regarding this relationship. (more)


Differential diagnosis of shoulder and cervical pain: a case report
By: Slaven EJ, Mathers J.
Made available by PubMed.
J Man Manip Ther. 2010 Dec;18(4):191-6.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
Patients are frequently referred to physical therapy with the diagnosis of shoulder and arm pain. During examination and evaluation of the patient, the physical therapist must consider all potential causes of the patient's symptoms. Three questions are used as the conceptual basis for a diagnosis-based clinical decision rule in the management of mechanical and non-mechanical musculoskeletal pain when addressing the differential diagnosis of a patient's condition. This single patient case report describes the use of these three questions in the differential diagnosis of shoulder and arm pain. (more)


Differential diagnosis and management of a patient with peripheral vestibular and central nervous system disorders: a case study
By: Trato J, Johnson EG.
Made available by PubMed.
J Man Manip Ther. 2010 Sep;18(3):159-65.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
Clinical examination and management of patients with meningiomas is primarily dependent upon appropriate diagnosis of tumor type and surgical intervention. Physical therapists should be able to identify patients presenting with signs and symptoms suggestive of potential central nervous system (CNS) disorders and refer the patient appropriately. (more)


Genetic doping and health damages
By: Fallahi AA, Ravasi AA, Farhud DD.
Made available by PubMed.
Iran J Public Health. 2011; 40(1): 1–14.


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Abstract:
Use of genetic doping or gene transfer technology will be the newest and the lethal method of doping in future and have some unpleasant consequences for sports, athletes, and outcomes of competitions. The purpose of this review is to consider genetic doping, health damages and risks of new genes if delivered in athletes. (more)


Inside athletes' minds: Preliminary results from a pilot study on mental representation of doping and potential implications for anti-doping
By: Petróczi A, Mazanov J, Naughton DP.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2011; 6:10.


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Abstract:
Despite the growing body of literature and putative links between the use of ergogenic nutritional supplements, doping and illicit drugs, it remains unclear whether, in athletes' minds, doping aligns with illicit behaviour or with functional use of chemical or natural preparations. To date, no attempt has been made to quantitatively explore athletes' mental representation of doping in relation to illegality and functionality. (more)


A ten-year assessment of anabolic steroid misuse among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico
By: Acevedo P, Jorge JC, Cruz-Sánchez A, Amy E, Barreto-Estrada JL.
Made available by PubMed.
West Indian Med J. 2011 October; 60(5): 531–5.


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Abstract:
Little is known about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse in the Caribbean region in spite of increased popularity among athletes and adolescents. The present study examines the usage of AAS among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico. (more)


A strategy to reduce illicit drug use is effective in elite Australian football
By: Harcourt PR, Unglik H, Cook JL.
Br J Sports Med. 2012 October;46(13):943-5.


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Abstract:
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs, as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. This paper reports the results of the first 7 years of an illicit drug-testing programme that included non-match day testing in the elite Australian Football competition, the Australian Football League (AFL). (more)


Health status of older adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus after aerobic or resistance training: a randomised trial
By: Ng CL, Tai ES, Goh SY, Wee HL.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2011 Aug 2;9:59.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
A prior study showed positive effects of resistance training on health status in individuals with diabetes compared to aerobic or no exercise, the exercise regimens were either different in volume, duration or rate of progression. We aimed to compare the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) or aerobic training (AT) of similar volume over an 8-week period on health status (measured using the Short-form 36 Questionnaire) in middle aged adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (more)


Balance training reduces falls risk in older individuals with type 2 diabetes
By: Morrison S, Colberg SR, Mariano M, Parson HK, Vinik AI.
Diabetes Care. 2010 Apr;33(4):748-50.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
This study assessed the effects of balance/strength training on falls risk and posture in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. (more)


Exercise training for type 2 diabetes mellitus: impact on cardiovascular risk: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association
By: Marwick TH, Hordern MD, Miller T et al.
Circulation. 2009 Jun 30;119(25):3244-62.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has led to an unprecedented epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is likely to be followed by an epidemic of patients with complications of T2DM. Given the observed increases in the prevalence of T2DM in adults over the past few decades in developed countries, population-based efforts to reduce the cardiovascular complications of T2DM are as critical as the measures to prevent the problem. (more)


Muscle activation during four Pilates core stability exercises in quadruped position
By: Queiroz BC, Cagliari MF, Amorim CF, Sacco IC.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Jan;91(1):86-92.
This article is referred to in the course Rehabilitation Pilates offered by Brent Anderson

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Abstract:
The paper compares the activity of stabilizing trunk and hip muscles in 4 variations of Pilates stabilizing exercises in the quadruped position. (more)


Systematic review of tests to identify the disc, SIJ or facet joint as the source of low back pain
By: Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, et al.
Made available by PubMed.
Eur Spine J. 2007 Oct;16(10):1539-50. Epub 2007 Jun 14.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
Clinical practice guidelines state that the tissue source of low back pain cannot be specified in the majority of patients, but there has been no systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests used to identify the source of low back pain. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tests available to clinicians to identify the disc, facet joint or sacroiliac joint (SIJ) as the source of low back pain. (more)


Body balance in patients with systemic vertigo after rehabilitation exercise
By: Mraz M, Curzytek M, Mraz MA, Gawron W, Czerwosz L, Skolimowski T.
J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;58 Suppl 5(Pt 1):427-36.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
The aim of this paper was to characterize structural balance of the body in people with systemic vertigo after applying rehabilitation exercise, such as motor-visual coordination on a posturographic platform and balance exercise. The rehabilitation program resulted in a decrease of the range of sways, improved visuomotor coordination and thus also improved balance. (more)


Effects of work ability and health promoting interventions for women with musculoskeletal symptoms: a 9-month prospective study
By: Larsson A, Karlqvist L, Gard G.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008 Jul 21;9:105.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
Women working in the public human service sector in 'overstrained' situations run the risk of musculoskeletal symptoms and long-term sick leave. In order to maintain the level of health and work ability and strengthen the potential resources for health, it is important that employees gain greater control over decisions and actions affecting their health — a process associated with the concept of self-efficacy. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a self-efficacy intervention and an ergonomic education intervention for women with musculoskeletal symptoms, employed in the public sector. (more)


Relationship between customary physical activity, muscle strength and physical performance in older men and women: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.
By: Martin HJ, Syddall HE, Dennison EM, Cooper C, Sayer AA.
Age Ageing. 2008 Sep;37(5):589-93.

This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
Maintenance of muscle strength and physical performance in later life is an important component of healthy aging. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between customary physical activity, muscle strength and physical performance in older men and women. (more)


Targeted individual exercise programmes for older medical patients are feasible, and may change hospital and patient outcomes: a service improvement project
By: Nolan J, Thomas S.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Dec 10;8:250
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
The aim of this project was primarily to assess the feasibility of individual exercise programs for older hospitalised patients at risk of functional decline, and secondarily to evaluate impact on discharge outcomes. (more)


Yoga and pilates in the management of low back pain
By: Sorosky S, Stilp S, Akuthota V.
Made available by PubMed.
Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2008 Mar;1(1):39-47.
This article is referred to in the course Rehabilitation Pilates offered by Brent Anderson

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Abstract:
Interventions that treat more than one aspect of lower back pain would have significant benefits for this patient population. Yoga and Pilates which have both been gaining in popularity over the last decade are 2 mind-body exercise interventions that address both the physical and mental aspects of pain with core strengthening, flexibility and relaxation. (more)


Distance and oxygen desaturation during the 6-min walk test as predictors of long-term mortality in patients with COPD.
By: Casanova C, Cote C, Marin JM, et al.
Chest. 2008 Oct;134(4):746-52.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
The distance walked in the 6-min walk test (6MWT) predicts mortality in patients with severe COPD. Little is known about its prognostic value in patients with a wider range of COPD severity, living in different countries, and the potential additional impact of oxygen desaturation measured during the test. We therefore enrolled 576 stable COPD outpatients in Spain and the United States and observed them for at least 3 years (median, 60 months). (more)


The feasibility of using pedometers and brief advice to increase activity in sedentary older women: a pilot study
By: Sugden JA, Sniehotta FF, Donnan PT, Boyle P, Johnston DW, McMurdo ME.
Made available by PubMed.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Aug 8;8:169.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
People over the age of 70 carry the greatest burden of chronic disease, disability and healthcare use. Participation in physical activity is crucial for health, and walking accounts for much of the physical activity undertaken by sedentary individuals. Pedometers are a useful motivational tool to encourage increased walking, and they are cheap and easy to use. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of the use of pedometers plus a theory-based intervention to assist sedentary older women to accumulate increasing amounts of physical activity, mainly through walking. (more)


Lymphedema: A primer on the identification and management of a chronic condition in oncologic treatment
By: Lawenda BD, Mondry TE, Johnstone PAS.
CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59;8-24.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Lymphedema, a chronic condition that occurs as a result of the body's inability to drain lymph fluid from the tissues, is a common treatment-related side effect experienced by cancer patients. In this review, many of the important aspects of lymphedema with which clinicians who treat cancer patients should be familiar are outlined, including the anatomy, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of this condition. The authors also identify some of the resources available both to cancer patients with lymphedema and to the clinicians who treat them. It is hoped that this review will convey the importance of the early identification and management of this incurable disorder because this is essential to minimizing its complications. (more)


Comparison of preseason, midseason, and postseason neurocognitive scores in uninjured collegiate football players
By: Miller JR, Adamson GJ, Pink MM, Sweet JC.
Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(8):1284.


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Abstract:
College football players sustain an average of 3 subconcussive blows to the head per game. While concussions correlate with decreases in standardized neurocognitive test scores, it is not known whether repetitive, subconcussive microtrauma associated with participation in a full season of collision sport affects neurocognitive test scores. This paper studied 58 members of a Division III collegiate football team who had no known concussion during the season. They voluntarily completed the SAC and ImPACT instruments preseason, midseason, and postseason. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the scores at the 3 time intervals (P < .05). (more)


Impact of exercise in community-dwelling older adults
By: Hubbard RE, Fallah N, Searle SD, Mitnitski A, Rockwood K.
PLoS One. 2009 Jul 8;4(7):e6174.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
Concern has been expressed that preventive measures in older people might increase frailty by increasing survival without improving health. We investigated the impact of exercise on the probabilities of health improvement, deterioration and death in community-dwelling older people. (more)


Effects of an endurance and resistance exercise program on persistent cancer-related fatigue after treatment
By: Dimeo F, Schwartz S, Wesel N, Voigt A, Thiel E.
Ann Oncol. 2008 Aug;19(8):1495-9.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Fatigue is a relevant problem of cancer patients during and after treatment. Several studies have shown that exercise can improve quality of life and functional status of cancer patients undergoing chemo- or radiotherapy. However, there is a lack of information about the effects of this intervention on persistent cancer-related fatigue. Therefore, we assessed the effects of an exercise program on cancer-related fatigue after treatment. (more)


A randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of 2 workstation interventions on upper body pain and incident musculoskeletal disorders among computer operators
By: Rempel DM, Krause N, Goldberg R, Benner D, Hudes M, Goldner GU.
Made available by PubMed.
Occup Environ Med. 2006;63:300–306.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
This 1-year, randomised controlled intervention trial evaluated the effects of a wide forearm support surface and a trackball on upper body pain severity and incident musculoskeletal disorders among 182 call centre operators at a large healthcare company. Participants were randomised to receive (1) ergonomics training only, (2) training plus a trackball, (3) training plus a forearm support, or (4) training plus a trackball and forearm support. Outcome measures were weekly pain severity scores and diagnosis of incident musculoskeletal disorder in the upper extremities or the neck/shoulder region based on physical examination performed by a physician blinded to intervention. (more)


Comparison of static and dynamic balance in female collegiate soccer, basketball, and gymnastics athletes
By: Bressel E, Yonker JC, Kras J, Heath EM.
Made available by PubMed.
J Athl Train. 2007;42(1);42-46.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
How athletes from different sports perform on balance tests is not well understood. When prescribing balance exercises to athletes in different sports, it may be important to recognize performance variations. The objective was to compare static and dynamic balance among collegiate athletes competing or training in soccer, basketball, and gymnastics. (more)


Early application of negative work via eccentric ergometry following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case report
By: Gerber JP, Marcus RL, Dibble LE, Greis PE, LaStayo PC.
J Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 2006 May;36(5);298-307.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
The objectives were to present a progressively increasing negative-work exercise program via eccentric ergometry early after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) and to suggest the potential of negative work to amplify the return of quadriceps size and strength. (more)


Creation and critique of studies of diagnostic accuracy: use of the STARD and QUADAS methodological quality assessment tools
By: Cook C, Cleland J, Huijbregts P.
J Man Manip Ther. 2007;15(2):93-102.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
The methodological issues associated with studies investigating the diagnostic utility of clinical tests have mandated the development of the STARD (Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy) and QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) criterion lists. The purpose of this paper is to outline the STARD and QUADAS criterion lists and to discuss how these methodological quality assessment tools can assist the clinician in ascertaining clinically useful information from a diagnostic accuracy study. (more)


Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema.
By: Stout Gergich NL, Pfalzer LA, McGarvey C, Springer B, Gerber LH, Soballe P.
Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;112(12):2809-19.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
The incidence of breast cancer (BC)-related lymphedema (LE) ranges from 7% to 47%. Successful management of LE relies on early diagnosis using sensitive measurement techniques. In the current study, the authors demonstrated the effectiveness of a surveillance program that included preoperative limb volume measurement and interval postoperative follow-up to detect and treat subclinical LE. (more)


Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms
By: Norman SA, Localio AR, Potashnik SL, et al.
J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jan 20;27(3):390-7.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, degree, time course, treatment and symptoms of lymphedema in breast cancer survivors. The authors conducted a 5-year, population-based prospective study of 631 randomly selected women with incident breast cancer who were diagnosed from 1999 to 2001. (more)


Three-minute ECG recording and arrhythmia detection in the evaluation and promotion of health
By: Minami M, Ishikawa Y, Matsumoto Y, Atarashi H, Atarashi K.
Intern Med. 2007;46(5):201-5.
This article is referred to in the course Arrhythmia & ECG Interpretations for Healthcare Professionals offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
A regular electrocardiogram (ECG) performed for about 20 seconds may fail to detect arrhythmia, whereas a prolonged ECG may detect arrhythmia in cases where the regular ECG is negative. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of a 3-minute ECG for detection of arrhythmia. (more)


Mechanotherapy: how physical therapists' prescription of exercise promotes tissue repair
By: Khan KM, Scott A.
Br J Sports Med. 2009 Apr;43(4):247-52.
This article is referred to in the course Peripheral Edema Management offered by Oncology Section of the APTA:

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Abstract:
Mechanotransduction is the physiological process where cells sense and respond to mechanical loads. This paper reclaims the term "mechanotherapy" and presents the current scientific knowledge underpinning how load may be used therapeutically to stimulate tissue repair and remodelling in tendon, muscle, cartilage and bone. The purpose of this short article is to answer a frequently asked question: "How precisely does exercise promote tissue healing?" (more)


Cancer-related fatigue: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment
By: Horneber M, Fischer I, Dimeo F, Rüffer JU, Weis J.
Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2012 Mar;109(9):161-71; quiz 172.
This article is referred to in the course Aerobic Conditioning in the Acute Care Setting offered by Laura Blood and Ashley Donovan

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Abstract:
Many cancer patients suffer from cancer-related fatigue (CRF) both during and after their treatment. It gives rise to a vicious circle of impaired physical performance, avoidance of exertion, inactivity, inadequate physical recovery, helplessness, and depressed mood. Its hallmarks are tiredness, exhaustion, and lack of energy; it can impair performance so severely that the patient is unable to work. The stress and impairments that it produces are often inadequately appreciated, and the opportunities for treatment often neglected. The authors did a selective review of the pertinent literature, including published guidelines from Germany and abroad. (more)


Ice and pulsed electromagnetic field to reduce pain and swelling after distal radius fractures
By: Cheing GL, Wan JW, Kai Lo S.
J Rehabil Med. 2005 Nov;37(6):372-7.
This article is referred to in the course Peripheral Edema Management offered by Oncology Section of the APTA:

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of ice therapy and/or pulsed electromagnetic field in reducing pain and swelling after the immobilization period following a distal radius fracture. A total of 83 subjects were randomly allocated to receive 30 minutes of either ice plus pulsed electromagnetic field (group A); ice plus sham pulsed electromagnetic field (group B); pulsed electromagnetic field alone (group C), or sham pulsed electromagnetic field treatment for 5 consecutive days (group D). All subjects received a standard home exercise programme. (more)


A pilot, prospective evaluation of a novel alternative for maintenance therapy of breast cancer-associated lymphedema.
By: Wilburn O, Wilburn P, Rockson SG.
BMC Cancer. 2006 Mar 29;6:84.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Prospective investigations of complete decongestive lymphatic physiotherapy (CDPT), including manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), have validated the efficacy of these interventions for the initial reduction of edema and long-term maintenance of limb volume in lymphedema. However, CDPT demands substantial time and effort from patients to maintain these benefits; the treatments are not always well-accepted, and patients may suffer from a deterioration in quality-of-life or a time-dependent loss of initial treatment benefits. A new device designed for home use by the patient, the Flexitouch, has been developed to mechanically simulate MLD. The authors have undertaken a prospective, randomized, crossover study of the efficacy of the Flexitouch, when compared to massage, in the self-administered maintenance therapy of lymphedema. (more)


Approach to leg edema of unclear etiology.
By: Ely JW, Osheroff JA, Chambliss ML, Ebell MH.
J Am Board Fam Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;19(2):148-60.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
A common challenge for primary care physicians is to determine the cause and find an effective treatment for leg edema of unclear etiology. This article provides clinically-oriented recommendations for the management of leg edema in adults, resulting from the authors' searches of online resources, textbooks, and MEDLINE (using the MeSH term, "edema") to find clinically-relevant articles on leg edema. Their goal was to write a brief, focused review that would answer questions about the management of leg edema. (more)


Incidence and risk of arm oedema following treatment for breast cancer: a three-year follow-up study
By: Clark B, Sitzia J, Harlow W.
QJM. 2005 May;98(5):343-8.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Breast-cancer-related lymphoedema is a chronic condition with estimates of incidence ranging from 6 to 83%. The authors of this paper examined incidence and risk factors for breast cancer-related arm lymphoedema among women who had surgical treatment for breast cancer. The authors concluded that lymphoedema remains a significant clinical problem, with 1:5 women in this sample developing the condition following treatment for breast cancer. (more)


Sarcopenia: effects on body composition and function
By: Roubenoff R.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003 Nov;58(11):1012-7.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass that happens to everyone with age. However, the rate of sarcopenia and the severity of its sequelae vary greatly according to health status, physical activity, and possibly diet. In this review, Dr. Roubenoff discusses the potential mechanisms of sarcopenia and some ideas about prevention and treatment. (more)


A description of physical therapists' knowledge in managing musculoskeletal conditions
By: Childs JD, Whitman JM, Sizer PS, Pugia ML, Flynn TW, Delitto A.
Made available by BioMed Central.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2005 Jun 17;6:32.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
Physical therapists increasingly provide direct access services to patients with musculoskeletal conditions, and growing evidence supports the cost-effectiveness of this mode of healthcare delivery. However, further evidence is needed to determine if physical therapists have the requisite knowledge necessary to manage musculoskeletal conditions. (more)


Integration of complementary disciplines into the oncology clinic: Part II: Physical therapy
By: Mondry TE.
Curr Probl Cancer. July/Aug 2000; 24(4);195-213.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
The purpose of this discussion is to outline the clinical benefits of physical therapy in treating patients with cancer. A detailed explanation of lymphedema, its causes and current treatment techniques will be discussed, along with the use of physical therapy intervention in addressing orthopedic problems associated with surgical procedures, radiation therapy and breast reconstructive surgery. (more)


Improving golf performance with a warm-up conditioning programme
By: Fradkin AJ, Sherman CA, Finch CF.
Made available by PubMed.
Br J Sports Med. 2004;38:762-765.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
The objective was to determine whether a golf-specific warm up programme (both immediately prior to play and after performing it 5 times a week for 5 weeks) improved performance in 10 male golfers compared with 10 controls matched for age, sex, and handicap. (more)


A randomized controlled trial. Shifting boundaries of doctors and physiotherapists in orthopaedic outpatient departments
By: Daker-White G, Carr AJ, Harvey I, et al.
Made available by PubMed.
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999 Oct;53(10):643-50.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of specially trained physiotherapists in the assessment and management of defined referrals to hospital orthopaedic departments. (more)


Elbow injuries in golf
By: Stockard AR.
J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2001 Sep;101(9):509-16.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
Golf is not a sport known for its high injury level; however, injuries do occur. Such mishaps usually involve overuse-type injuries that are more common among amateur golfers than among professional golfers. This article attempts to provide an overview of golf injuries to the elbow, with a concentration on incidence, proper diagnosis, adequate treatment (including rehabilitation), and prevention strategies. (more)


Ethical issues identified by rehabilitation clinicians
By: Kirschner KL, Stocking C, Wagner LB, Foye SJ, Siegler M.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Dec;82(12 Suppl 2):S2-8.
This article is referred to in the course Ethics for Healthcare Practitioners, 2012 offered by Stefanie Palma

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Abstract:
The goal of this study was to quantify systematically and to characterize the range of ethics issues affecting rehabilitation professionals' day-to-day clinical practice, and to assess the preferences of rehabilitation clinicians for ethics education. The authors found that ethical issues in the rehabilitation setting are common, and reflect both the dynamic nature of the health care environment and the team model of care. Ongoing, interactive educational interventions are warranted to address these issues. (more)


Manual therapy and cervical arterial dysfunction, directions for the future: a clinical perspective.
By: Kerry R, Taylor AJ, Mitchell J, McCarthy C, Brew J.
J Man Manip Ther. 2008;16(1):39-48.
This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
This paper offers a contemporary, evidence-based perspective on the issue of adverse neurovascular events related to cervical spine manual therapy. The purpose of this perspective is to challenge traditional thought and practice and to recognize areas where practice and research should develop. By considering the themes presented in this paper, the clinician can broaden his or her approach to neurovascular assessment in line with contemporary evidence and thought. (more)


Five pitfalls in decisions about diagnosis and prescribing.
By: Klein JG.
Made available by PubMed.
BMJ. 2005 Apr 2;330(7494):781-3.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
Psychologists have studied the cognitive processes involved in decision making extensively and have identified many factors that lead people astray. Because doctors’ decisions have profound effects on their patients’ health, these decisions should be of the best possible quality. All doctors should therefore be aware of possible pitfalls in medical decision making and take steps to avoid these unnecessary errors. In this article, I present five examples of cognitive biases that can affect medical decision making and offer suggestions for avoiding them. (more)


Rehabilitation after total hip and knee arthroplasty: a new regimen using Pilates training
By: Levine B, Kaplanek B, Scafura D, Jaffe WL.
Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis. 2007;65(2):120-5.
This article is referred to in the course Rehabilitation Pilates offered by Brent Anderson

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Abstract:
With the introduction of minimally invasive techniques and the pressure of insurance regulations, postoperative rehabilitation after total hip and knee arthroplasty has been placed on an accelerated track. As surgeons turn to more aggressive postoperative protocols and early entry into outpatient therapies, we introduce a pre- and postoperative program involving the Pilates method. While this technique appears safe and effective anecdotally, further controlled trials are necessary to prove its validity. (more)


Two different techniques in the rehabilitation treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial
By: Donzelli S, Di Domenica E, Cova AM, Galletti R, Giunta N.
Eura Medicophys. 2006 Sep;42(3):205-10.
This article is referred to in the course Rehabilitation Pilates offered by Brent Anderson

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Abstract:
The Back School is a widely accepted and effective method for treating low back pain, whereas no scientific evidence exists about the effects of the Pilates CovaTech method. With this study we wanted to evaluate the efficacy of this new method in patients with low back pain. (more)


Active or passive treatment for neck-shoulder pain in occupational health care? A randomized controlled trial.
By: Savolainen A, Ahlberg J, Nummila H, Nissinen M.
Occup Med (Lond). 2004 Sep;54(6):422-4.
This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of thoracic manipulations with instructions for physiotherapeutic exercises for the treatment of neck pain in occupational health care. A statistically significant difference was found in self-reported worst pain by VAS at the 12 month follow-up in favour of the thoracic manipulation group. (more)


Predictor variables for a positive long-term functional outcome in patients with acute and chronic neck and back pain treated with a McKenzie approach: a secondary analysis
By: May S, Gardiner E, Young S, Klaber-Moffett J.
Made available by PubMed.
J Man Manip Ther. 2008;16(3):155-60.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
A cognitive behavioral approach was previously compared to a biomechanical approach (the McKenzie method) for the treatment of patients with back and neck pain in a randomized trial. Few differences between the treatment interventions were found. The aim of this secondary analysis was to determine if any clinical characteristics distinguished those patients who responded best to the McKenzie approach. (more)


Maneuvers for the treatment of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo: a systematic review
By: Teixeira LJ, Machado JN.
Made available by SciELO.org.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Jan-Feb;72(1):130-9.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most frequent diseases of the vestibular system, and it is characterized by episodes of recurrent vertigo triggered by head movements or position changes. There are several approaches for treatment, but efficacy is still being discussed. This paper assesses the effectiveness of the specific maneuvers available to the treatment of BPPV. (more)


Accelerated loss of skeletal muscle strength in older adults with type 2 diabetes: the health, aging, and body composition study
By: Park SW, Goodpaster BH, Strotmeyer ES et al.
Diabetes Care. 2007 Jun;30(6):1507-12.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
It has been shown that adults with either long-standing type 1 or type 2 diabetes had lower skeletal muscle strength than nondiabetic adults in cross-sectional studies. The aim of the study was to investigate longitudinal changes of muscle mass and strength in community-dwelling older adults with and without type 2 diabetes. (more)


Continuous low- to moderate-intensity exercise training is as effective as moderate- to high-intensity exercise training at lowering blood HbA(1c) in obese type 2 diabetes patients
By: Hansen D, Dendale P, Jonkers RA et al.
Diabetologia. 2009 Sep;52(9):1789-97.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Exercise represents an effective interventional strategy to improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. In the present study, we compared the clinical benefits of 6 months of continuous low- to moderate-intensity exercise training with those of continuous moderate- to high-intensity exercise training, matched for energy expenditure, in obese type 2 diabetes patients. (more)


Pragmatic application of a clinical prediction rule in primary care to identify patients with low back pain with a good prognosis following a brief spinal manipulation intervention
By: Fritz JM, Childs JD, Flynn TW.
BMC Fam Pract. 2005 Jul 14;6(1):29.
This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
Patients with low back pain are frequently encountered in primary care. Although a specific diagnosis cannot be made for most patients, it is likely that sub-groups exist within the larger entity of nonspecific low back pain. One sub-group that has been identified is patients who respond rapidly to spinal manipulation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between two factors (duration and distribution of symptoms) and prognosis following a spinal manipulation intervention. (more)


Total contact casting of the diabetic foot in daily practice: a prospective follow-up study
By: Nabuurs-Franssen MH, Sleegers R, Huijberts MS et al.
Diabetes Care. 2005 Feb;28(2):243-7.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
A limited number of clinical trials have shown that the total contact cast (TCC) is an effective treatment in neuropathic, noninfected, and nonischemic foot ulcers. In this prospective data collection study, we assessed outcome and complications of TCC treatment in neuropathic patients with and without peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or (superficial) infection. (more)


Determinants of changes in blood glucose response to short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes
By: Hordern MD, Cooney LM, Beller EM, Prins JB, Marwick TH, Coombes JS.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2008 Nov;115(9):273-81.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a 4-week exercise training intervention on blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, BMI (body mass index) and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to identify and establish criteria for patients who are more likely to improve their blood glucose from short-term exercise training. (more)


Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial
By: Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Boulé NG et al.
Ann Intern Med. 2007 Sep 18;147(6):357-69.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Previous trials have evaluated the effects of aerobic training alone and of resistance training alone on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, as assessed by hemoglobin A1C values. However, none could assess incremental effects of combined aerobic and resistance training compared with either type of exercise alone. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic training alone, resistance training alone, and combined exercise training on hemoglobin A1C values in patients with type 2 diabetes. (more)


Impact of diabetes on physical function in older people
By: Sinclair AJ, Conroy SP, Bayer AJ.
Diabetes Care. 2008 Feb;31(2):233-5.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of functional impairment in older people with diabetes. (more)


Cardiac outcomes after screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: the DIAD study: a randomized controlled trial
By: Young LH, Wackers FJ, Chyun DA et al.
Made available by PubMed.
JAMA. 2009 Apr 15;301(15):1547-55.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes. But the utility of screening patients with type 2 diabetes for asymptomatic CAD is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess whether routine screening for CAD identifies patients with type 2 diabetes as being at high cardiac risk and whether it affects their cardiac outcomes. (more)


Exercise capacity and body composition as predictors of mortality among men with diabetes
By: Church TS, Cheng YJ, Earnest CP, et al.
Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):83-8.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to quantify the relation of fitness to mortality among men with diabetes, adjusted for BMI and within levels of BMI. (more)


Threshold for detection of diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy using a range of research grade monofilaments in persons with Type 2 diabetes mellitus
By: Thomson MP, Potter J, Finch PM, Paisey RB.
J Foot Ankle Res. 2008 Sep 11;1(1):9.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to identify the threshold of reduced sensory perception in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM) using a range of research grade monofilaments. (more)


The pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism
By: Brownlee M.
Diabetes. 2005 Jun;54(6):1615-25.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Based on his Banting Lecture 2004, Brownlee divides his paper into three parts. The first part is called “pieces of the puzzle,” which describes what was learned about the pathobiology of diabetic complications, starting with a 1966 Science paper and continuing through the end of the 1990s. In the second part, he presents a unified mechanism that links together all of the seemingly unconnected pieces of the puzzle. Finally, in the third part, he focuses on three examples of novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications, which are all based on the new paradigm of a unifying mechanism for the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. (more)


Discography as a diagnostic test for spinal pain: a systematic and narrative review
By: Shah RV, Everett CR, McKenzie-Brown AM, Sehgal N.
Pain Physician. 2005 Apr;8(2):187-209.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
The intervertebral disc has been implicated as an etiology of chronic spine pain based on clinical, basic science, and epidemiological research. Unfortunately, there is no way to determine with absolute certainty whether or not the disc is a spinal pain generator. Recent advances in the neurobiology of pain processing further underscore the possibility that we may never know the source of a patient's pain. At our current level of understanding, from an empirical standpoint, discography is thought of as the best tool to evaluate disc-related pain. This paper systematically assesses the quality of clinical studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of discography with respect to chronic spinal pain. (more)


Musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes mellitus
By: Smith LL, Burnet SP, McNeil JD.
Br J Sports Med. 2003 Feb;37(1):30-5.
This article is referred to in the course Physical Therapy for Children With Type 1 Diabetes offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Rheumatic complaints are common in patients with diabetes. Maintaining good glycaemic control by exercise, diet, and medication improves or prevents the development of rheumatic conditions. (more)


Conservative treatment for repetitive strain injury.
By: Konijnenberg HS, de Wilde NS, Gerritsen AA, van Tulder MW, de Vet HC.
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2001 Oct;27(5):299-310.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
Various conservative treatment options for repetitive strain injury are widely used, despite questionable evidence of their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of these treatment options for relieving symptoms of repetitive strain injury and improving activities of daily living. (more)


Segmental lumbar mobility in individuals with low back pain: in vivo assessment during manual and self-imposed motion using dynamic MRI.
By: Kulig K, Powers CM, Landel RF, et al.
Made available by PubMed.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007 Jan 29;8:8.
This article is referred to in the course The Dizzy and Imbalanced Patient offered by Rob Landel

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Abstract:
Altered spinal mobility is thought to be related to current or past episodes of low back pain; however evidence of that relationship in younger subjects has not been established. The purpose of this study was to compare lumbar segmental mobility in asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects during posterior to anterior (PA) manual spinal mobilization and a self-initiated prone press-up (PU) maneuver. We hypothesized that persons with central low back pain would have an altered lumbar segmental mobility pattern compared to those without pain. (more)


McKenzie diagnosis and therapy in the evaluation and management of a lumbar disc derangement syndrome: a case study
By: Santolin SM.
Made available by PubMed.
J Chiropr Med. 2003 Spring;2(2):60-5.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
The study discusses the case of a patient whose lumbar disc derangement syndrome resolved after treatment that included McKenzie diagnosis and therapy, spinal mobilization, and spinal manipulation. Also, it gives an overview of the McKenzie method in general, and more specifically for evaluation and management of derangement syndrome. (more)


Reliability of procedures used in the physical examination of non-specific low back pain: a systematic review
By: May S, Littlewood C, Bishop A.
Aust J Physiother. 2006;52(2):91-102.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the quality of the research and to assess the reliability of different types of physical examination procedures used in the assessment of patients with non-specific low back pain. Pre-established criteria were used to judge the quality of the studies and satisfactory reliability, and conclusions emphasised high quality studies (> or = 60% methods score). (more)


Effects of managed care on physician-patient relationships, quality of care, and the ethical practice of medicine
By: Feldman DS, Novack DH, Gracely E.
Arch Intern Med. 1998 Aug 10-24;158(15):1626-32.
This article is referred to in the course Ethics for Healthcare Practitioners, 2012 offered by Stefanie Palma

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Abstract:
Survey studies have shown that physicians believe managed care is having significant impact on many of their professional obligations. METHODS: Primary care physicians were asked about the impact of managed care on: (1) physician-patient relationships, (2) the ability of physicians to carry out their professional ethical obligations, and (3) quality of patient care. Many physicians surveyed believe managed care has significant negative effects on the physician-patient relationship, the ability to carry out ethical obligations, and on quality of patient care. These results have implications for health care system reform efforts. (more)


Electromyographic analysis of the shoulder during the golf swing
By: Pink M, Jobe FW, Perry J.
Am J Sports Med. 1990 Mar-Apr;18(2):137-40.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to analyze the EMG activity in eight shoulder muscles of both the right and left arms during the golf swing. The results reveal that the infraspinatus and supraspinatus act predominantly at the extremes of shoulder range of motion, the subscapularis and pectoralis major during acceleration, the latissimus dorsi during forward swing, and the anterior deltoid during forward swing and follow-through. The middle and posterior deltoids appear to be relatively noncontributory, without any specific timing patterns. This data is an expansion of an earlier pilot study and allows us to more accurately develop an exercise program for optimal performance as well as for prevention and rehabilitation. (more)


Influence of body mass index and work activity on the prevalence of median mononeuropathy at the wrist
By: Werner RA, Franzblau A, Albers JW, Armstrong TJ.
Occup Environ Med. 1997 Apr;54(4):268-71.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
The objective of this study was to determine which proposed risk factor, work activity (industrial v clerical), body mass index (BMI), or other demographic factors had the most influence on the prevalence of median mononeuropathy at the wrist, and if there was an interaction between the risk factors. The authors concluded that obesity, industrial work, and age are independent risk factors that influence the prevalence of median mononeuropathies among active workers. (more)


Musculoskeletal disorders in hotel restaurant workers
By: Chyuan JY, Du CL, Yeh WY, Li CY.
Occup Med (Lond). 2004 Jan;54(1):55-7.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
A variety of occupational groups have been shown to experience elevated risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). Little information on WMSD is available in hotel restaurant workers. The authors concluded that WMSD-related pain is common among hotel restaurant workers in Taiwan, but it does not appear to interfere with job performance or daily living. Self-treatment and alternative therapies that have not been evaluated for effectiveness are commonly employed by hotel restaurant workers. (more)


Arm edema in breast cancer patients.
By: Erickson VS, Pearson ML, Ganz PA, Adams J, Kahn KL.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Jan 17;93(2):96-111.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
The improvement in the life expectancy of women with breast cancer raises important questions about how to improve the quality of life for women sustaining complications of breast cancer treatment. In particular, attention to common problems, such as arm edema, is of critical importance. The authors reviewed published breast cancer guidelines and literature identified via MEDLINE® searches in an effort to summarize the research literature pertinent to management of breast cancer-related arm edema, including incidence, prevalence, and timing; risk factors; morbidity; prevention; diagnosis; and efficacy of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions. (more)


Decongestive lymphatic therapy for patients with breast carcinoma-associated lymphedema. A randomized, prospective study of a role for adjunctive intermittent pneumatic compression.
By: Szuba A, Achalu R, Rockson SG.
Cancer. 2002 Dec 1;95(11):2260-7.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Disruption of the lymphatic circulation through breast carcinoma-associated axillary lymph node dissection, with or without radiation therapy, reportedly is the most common cause of lymphedema in developed countries. There is no cure for breast carcinoma-associated lymphedema. Although intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has been acknowledged as a potential component of the multidisciplinary therapeutic strategy in the treatment of patients with breast carcinoma-associated lymphedema, prospective study of its adjunctive safety and efficacy is required. The authors assessed IPC as a component of the initial therapeutic regimen for newly treated patients with breast carcinoma-associated lymphedema. (more)


Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research
By: Pickering TG, Hall JE, Appel LJ, et al.
Hypertension. 2005 Jan;45(1): 142-61.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Accurate measurement of blood pressure is essential to classify individuals, to ascertain blood pressure-related risk, and to guide management. It is increasingly recognized that office measurements correlate poorly with blood pressure measured in other settings, and that they can be supplemented by self-measured readings taken with validated devices at home. (more)


Strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle and functional recovery after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a prospective, randomized clinical trial of electrical stimulation
By: Snyder-Mackler L, Delitto A, Bailey SL, Stralka SW.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995;77;1166-1173.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
There was a clinically and statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference in the recovery of the quadriceps and the gait parameters according to the type of operation that had been performed: the patients who had had reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with use of an autologous patellar-ligament graft did poorly compared with the other patients. (more)


Bilateral and multiple cavitation sounds during upper cervical thrust manipulation
By: Dunning J, Mourad F, Barbero M, Leoni D, Cescon C, Butts R.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013 Jan 15;14:24.

This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
The popping produced during high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation is a common sound; however to our knowledge, no study has previously investigated the location of cavitation sounds during manipulation of the upper cervical spine. The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during C1-2 rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of pops, the duration of upper cervical thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Conclusions: Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur bilaterally than unilaterally during upper cervical HVLA thrust manipulation. Most subjects produced 3–4 pops during a single rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation targeting the right or left C1-2 articulation; therefore, practitioners of spinal manipulative therapy should expect multiple popping sounds when performing upper cervical thrust manipulation to the atlanto-axial joint. Furthermore, the traditional manual therapy approach of targeting a single ipsilateral or contralateral facet joint in the upper cervical spine may not be realistic. (more)


A new approach to physical activity maintenance: rationale, design, and baseline data from the Keep Active Minnesota Trial
By: Sherwood NE, Martinson BC, Crain AL, Hayes MG, Pronk NP, O'Connor PJ.
Made available by PubMed.
BMC Geriatr. 2008 Jul 25;8:17.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
Since many individuals who initiate physical activity programs are highly likely to return to a sedentary lifestyle, innovative strategies are needed to increase the number of physically active older adults who successfully maintain beneficial levels of PA for a substantial length of time. The Keep Active Minnesota study offers an innovative approach to the perennial problem of physical activity relapse; by focusing explicitly on physical activity maintenance, the intervention holds considerable promise for modifying the typical relapse curve. Moreover, if shown to be efficacious, the use of phone- and mail-based intervention delivery offers potential for widespread dissemination. (more)


Surface electromyographic analysis of exercises for the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles
By: Ekstrom RA, Donatelli RA, Soderberg GL.
J Ortho Sports Phys Ther. 2003 May;33(5);247-258.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
The trapezius and serratus anterior muscles are considered to be the only upward rotators of the scapula and are important for normal shoulder function. Electromyographic studies have been performed for these muscles during active and low-intensity exercises, but they have not been analyzed during high intensity exercises. The objective was to identify high-intensity exercises that elicit the greatest level of EMG activity in the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles. (more)


Comparison of outcomes of untreated carpal tunnel syndrome and asymptomatic controls in meat packers
By: Gorsche RG, Wiley JP, Brant R, Renger RF, Sasyniuk TM, Burke N.
Occup Med (Lond). 2002 Dec;52(8):491-6.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
The objectives of this paper were to determine the reporting of symptoms, the medical outcome and the work status of meat plant workers diagnosed with clinical carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Forty-seven cases of CTS were identified from a previously reported study, and were matched by age, gender and hand use. Cases and controls were followed up for 24 months. Occupation-related CTS in meat packers appears to be transient and responsive to conservative measures, with a surgical rate comparable to other occupations. (more)


Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative
By: Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, et al.
Fam Pract. 2004 Feb;21(1):4-10.
This article is referred to in the course Differential Diagnosis offered by Chad Cook

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Abstract:
Our aim was to improve the accuracy and completeness of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy in order to allow readers to assess the potential for bias in a study and to evaluate the generalizability of its results. The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) steering committee searched the literature to identify publications on the appropriate conduct and reporting of diagnostic studies and extracted potential items into an extensive list. Researchers, editors and members of professional organizations shortened this list during a 2-day consensus meeting with the goal of developing a checklist and a generic flow diagram for studies of diagnostic accuracy. (more)


An investigation into the validity of cervical spine motion palpation using subjects with congenital block vertebrae as a 'gold standard.'
By: Humphreys BK, Delahaye M, Peterson CK.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2004 Jun 15;5:19.
This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
Although the effectiveness of manipulative therapy for treating back and neck pain has been demonstrated, the validity of many of the procedures used to detect joint dysfunction has not been confirmed. Practitioners of manual medicine frequently employ motion palpation as a diagnostic tool, despite conflicting evidence regarding its utility and reliability. The introduction of various spinal models with artificially introduced 'fixations' as an attempt to introduce a 'gold standard' has met with frustration and frequent mechanical failure. Because direct comparison against a 'gold standard' allows the validity, specificity and sensitivity of a test to be calculated, the identification of a realistic 'gold standard' against which motion palpation can be evaluated is essential. The objective of this study was to introduce a new, realistic, 'gold standard', the congenital block vertebra (CBV) to assess the validity of motion palpation in detecting a true fixation. (more)


Pilates-based therapeutic exercise: effect on subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and functional disability: a randomized controlled trial
By: Rydeard R, Leger A, Smith D.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006 Jul;36(7):472-84.
This article is referred to in the course Rehabilitation Pilates offered by Brent Anderson

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Abstract:
Therapeutic approaches developed from the Pilates method are becoming increasingly popular; however, there have been no reports on their efficacy. This study investigates the efficacy of a therapeutic exercise approach in a population with chronic low back pain (LBP). (more)


AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes during exercise
By: Musi N, Fujii N, Hirshman MF et al.
Diabetes. 2001 May;50(5):921-7.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation is impaired in people with type 2 diabetes. In contrast, exercise results in a normal increase in GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in these patients. Several groups have recently hypothesized that exercise increases glucose uptake via an insulin-independent mechanism mediated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). If this hypothesis is correct, people with type 2 diabetes should have normal AMPK activation in response to exercise. (more)


Heart-rate recovery immediately after exercise as a predictor of mortality
By: Cole CR, Blackstone EH, Pashkow FJ, Snader CE, Lauer MS.
N Engl J Med. 1999 Oct 28;341(18):1351-7.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The increase in heart rate that accompanies exercise is due in part to a reduction in vagal tone. Recovery of the heart rate immediately after exercise is a function of vagal reactivation. Because a generalized decrease in vagal activity is known to be a risk factor for death, the researchers hypothesized that a delayed fall in the heart rate after exercise might be an important prognostic marker. (more)


Incidence of breast carcinoma-related lymphedema
By: Petrek JA, Heelan MC.
Cancer. 1998 Dec 15;83(12 Suppl American):2776-81.
This article is referred to in the course The Comprehensive Management of Edema offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Of the 2 million breast carcinoma survivors, perhaps 15-20% are living currently with posttreatment lymphedema. Along with the physical discomfort and disfigurement, patients with lymphedema also must cope with the distress derived from these symptoms. The authors of this paper reviewed all publications with subject headings designating breast carcinoma-related lymphedema from 1970 to the present (116 reports) were found, and each summary or abstract was read. Of the 116 reports, 35 discussed the incidence of lymphedema. Of these, seven reports since 1990 from five countries with the most relevance to current patients were then chosen for greater analysis and comparison. The authors concluded that the definitive study to determine the incidence of lymphedema has not been performed to date. There has been no prospective study in which patients have been followed at intervals with accurate measurement techniques over the long term. (more)


Meta-analysis of the effect of structured exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness in type 2 diabetes mellitus
By: Boulé NG, Kenny GP, Haddad E, Wells GA, Sigal RJ.
Diabetologia. 2003 Aug;46(8):1071-81.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Low cardiorespiratory fitness is a powerful and independent predictor of mortality in people with diabetes. Several studies have examined the effects of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness in Type 2 diabetic individuals. However, these studies had relatively small sample sizes and highly variable results. Therefore the aim of this study was to systematically review and quantify the effects of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness in Type 2 diabetic individuals. (more)


A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of provocative tests of the neck for diagnosing cervical radiculopathy.
By: Rubinstein SM, Pool JJ, van Tulder MW, Riphagen II, de Vet HC.
Made available by PubMed.
Eur Spine J. 2007 Mar;16(3):307-19.
This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
Clinical provocative tests of the neck, which position the neck and arm inorder to aggravate or relieve arm symptoms, are commonly used in clinical practice in patients with a suspected cervical radiculopathy. Their diagnostic accuracy, however, has never been examined in a systematic review. A comprehensive search was conducted in order to identify all possible studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. This review suggests that, when consistent with the history and other physical findings, a positive Spurling's, traction/neck distraction, and Valsalva's might be indicative of a cervical radiculopathy, while a negative ULTT might be used to rule it out. However, the lack of evidence precludes any firm conclusions regarding their diagnostic value, especially when used in primary care. More high quality studies are necessary in order to resolve this issue. (more)


Orthopaedic manual therapy, McKenzie method or advice only for low back pain in working adults: a randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up
By: Paatelma M, Kilpikoski S, Simonen R, Heinonen A, Alen M, Videman T.
J Rehabil Med. 2008 Nov;40(10):858-63.
This article is referred to in the course The McKenzie Method Update offered by McKenzie Institute Faculty:

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Abstract:
The objective of this paper was to examine the effects of 2 manual therapy methods compared with one counselling session with a physiotherapist with "advice-only to stay active" for treating low back pain/leg pain and disability. Participants with acute to chronic first or recurrent low back pain, excluding those with "red flag" criteria, were assigned randomly to one of the 3 intervention groups: an orthopaedic manual therapy group, a McKenzie method group, and an "advice only to be active" group. (more)


Merkel cell carcinoma: Critical review with guidelines for multidisciplinary management
By: Bichakjian CK, Lowe L, Lao CD, Sandler HM, Bradford CR, Johnson TM, Wong SL.
Cancer. 2007;110(1);1-12.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive reference for MCC based on a critical evaluation of the current data. The authors investigated the importance of sentinel lymph node biopsy as a staging tool for MCC to assess the status of the regional lymph node basin and to determine the need for additional therapy to the lymph node basin. In an attempt to standardize prospective data collection with the intention to define prognostic indicators, the authors also present histopathologic profiles for primary MCC and sentinel lymph nodes. The controversies regarding the appropriate surgical approach to primary MCC, the use of adjuvant radiation therapy, and the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy were examined critically. Finally, the authors have provided treatment guidelines based on the available evidence and their multidisciplinary experience. (more)


A comparison of 2 rehabilitation programs in the treatment of acute hamstring strains
By: Sherry MA, Best TM.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2004 Mar;34(3):116-25.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of 2 rehabilitation programs for acute hamstring strain by evaluating time needed to return to sports and reinjury rate during the first 2 weeks and the first year after return to sport. A third objective was to investigate the relationship between functional testing performance and time to return to sports and reinjury rates after return to sport. (more)


Carpal tunnel syndrome and cubital tunnel syndrome: work-related musculoskeletal disorders in four symptomatic radiologists
By: Ruess L, O'Connor SC, Cho KH, et al.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003 Jul;181(1):37-42.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
This report describes work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders in four radiologists and identifies risk factors and preventive measures for these syndromes. It concludes that current technology renders staff radiologists at risk for work-related, upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, including carpal and cubital tunnel syndromes. Proper equipment, ergonomics, and professional consultation should be used in all radiology departments. (more)


Age and gender comparisons of muscle strength in 654 women and men aged 20-93 yr.
By: Lindle RS, Metter EJ, Lynch NA, Fleg JL, Fozard JL, Tobin J, Roy TA, Hurley BF.
J Appl Physiol. 1997 Nov;83(5):1581-7.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
It has been documented that both muscle mass and strength decline with age. This decline is associated with an increased risk of falls, hip fractures, and adverse physiological changes, such as glucose intolerance and a loss of bone mineral density. Consequently, these changes may predispose elderly individuals to osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, and diabetes as well as to functional limitations in activities of daily living. (more)


Cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and general practitioner care for neck pain: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial.
By: Korthals-de Bos IBC, Hoving JL, van Tulder MW, et al.
BMJ. 2003 Apr 26;326(7395):911.
This article is referred to in the course Cervical Spine Mechanical Disorders: Diagnosis & PT Management offered by Timothy Flynn

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of physiotherapy, manual therapy, and care by a general practitioner for patients with neck pain. The manual therapy group showed a faster improvement than the physiotherapy group and the general practitioner care group up to 26 weeks, but differences were negligible by follow up at 52 weeks. The cost effectiveness ratios and the cost utility ratios showed that manual therapy was less costly and more effective than physiotherapy or general practitioner care. (more)


Heart rate recovery following maximal exercise testing as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men with diabetes
By: Cheng YJ, Lauer MS, Earnest CP et al.
Diabetes Care. 2003 Jul;26(7):2052-7.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Heart rate recovery (HRR) is an independent prognostic indicator for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in healthy men. The study examined the association of HRR to CVD-related and all-cause mortality in men with diabetes. (more)


Methodological issues in evaluating workplace interventions to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders through mechanical exposure reduction
By: Cole DC, Wells RP, Frazer MB, et al.
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2003 Oct;29(5):396-405.
This article is referred to in the course Build a Work Injury Consulting Practice offered by Lauren Hebert

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Abstract:
Researchers of work-related musculoskeletal disorders are increasingly asked about the evidentiary base for mechanical exposure reductions. Mixed messages can arise from the different disciplinary cultures of evidence, and these mixed messages make different sets of findings incommensurate. Interventions also operate at different levels within workplaces and result in different intensities of mechanical exposure reduction. Heterogeneity in reporting intervention processes and in measuring relevant outcomes makes the synthesis of research reports difficult. As a means of synthesizing the current understanding of measures, this paper describes a set of intervention and observation nodes for which relevant workplace indicators prior to, during, and after mechanical exposure reduction can provide useful information. (more)


Electromyographic shoulder activity in men and women professional golfers
By: Jobe, FW, Perry J, Pink M.
Am J Sports Med. 1989;17(6):782-7.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
Men and women both enjoy the game of golf. Special considerations are made for women, such as the courses on the professional tours. Thus, one can ask what differences might exist between men and women golfers. This study compares the electromyographic firing patterns of normal shoulder musculature in men and women professional golfers. Eight shoulder muscles (pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, anterior, middle and posterior deltoids) were studied using indwelling electromyography. (more)


Reduced early insulin secretion in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians
By: Bogardus C, Tataranni PA.
Diabetes. 2002 Feb;51 Suppl 1:S262-4.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
We report the results of cross-sectional, prospective, and longitudinal studies identifying etiologic metabolic factors in the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus of the Pima Indians of Arizona, whose prevalence and incidence rates of the disease are the highest in the world. (more)


EMG analysis of the scapular muscles during a shoulder rehabilitation program
By: Moseley JB Jr, Jobe FW, Pink M, Perry J, Tibone J.
Am J Sports Med. 1992 Mar-Apr;20(2):128-34.
This article is referred to in the course The Shoulder Complex offered by Marilyn M. Pink

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine which exercises most effectively use the scapular muscles. Eight muscles in nine healthy subjects were studied with indwelling electromyographic electrodes and cinematography while performing 16 exercises. The eight muscles studied were the upper, middle, and lower trapezius; levator scapula; rhomboids; pectoralis minor; and the middle and lower serratus anterior. Each exercise was divided into arcs of motion and the electromyographic activity was quantified as a percentage of the maximal manual muscle test. The optimal exercises for each muscle were identified based on intensity (greater than 50% maximal manual muscle test) and duration (over at least 3 consecutive arcs of motion) of the muscle activity. (more)


Electromyographic analysis of the glenohumeral muscles during a baseball rehabilitation program
By: Townsend H, Jobe FW, Pink M, Perry J.
Am J Sports Med. 1991 May-Jun;19(3):264-72.
This article is referred to in the course The Shoulder Complex offered by Marilyn M. Pink

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Abstract:
Many exercises are used to strengthen the glenohumeral muscles, but there have been limited studies to evaluate the exercises. Thus, the purpose of this study was to decide how the muscles responsible for humeral motion can best be exercised in a rehabilitation program for the throwing athlete. Dynamic, fine wire, intramuscular electromyography was carried out in 15 normal male volunteers performing 17 shoulder exercises derived from a shoulder rehabilitation program used by professional baseball clubs. The four rotator cuff muscles were studied, as well as other positioners of the humerus, including the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and three portions of the deltoid. The electromyographic activity was synchronized with cinematography and averaged over 30 degrees arcs of motion. (more)


Unusual cause of wrist pain in a golfer.
By: McHardy AJ, Pollard HP.
Made available by PubMed.
Br J Sports Med. 2004 Dec;38(6):e34.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
Wrist injury is common in golfers and normally occurs at the impact of the club with the ball. The unusual case is reported of a low handicap golfer with wrist pain aggravated by the putting stroke. The condition was resolved with treatment. The likely mechanism for the injury is discussed. (more)


Power training improves balance in healthy older adults
By: Orr R, de Vos NJ, Singh NA, Ross DA, Stavrinos TM, Fiatarone-Singh MA.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Jan;61(1):78-85.
This article is referred to in the course Functional Assessment and Exercise for the Aging Adult offered by Dale Avers and Patrick VanBeveren

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Abstract:
Age-related decline in muscle power may be an early indicator of balance deficits and fall risk, even in nonfrail adults. This study examined the dose-dependent effect of power training on balance performance in healthy older adults. Power training improves balance, particularly using a low load, high velocity regimen, in older adults with initial lower muscle power and slower contraction. (more)


Electromyographic analysis of the trunk in golfers
By: Pink M, Perry J, Jobe FW.
Am J Sports Med. 1993 May-Jun;21(3):385-8.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
The trunk is the most common area of injury during the golf swing. This study describes and compares the muscle firing patterns in the trunk during the golf swing. The high and constant activity of these muscles indicate the need for an effective preventive and rehabilitative exercise program for the golfer (more)


Electromyographic analysis of the scapular muscles during a golf swing
By: Kao JT, Pink M, Jobe FW, Perry J.
Am J Sports Med. 1995 Jan-Feb;23(1):19-23.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
To describe the role of the scapular muscles in the golf swing, we studied 15 competitive male golfers. Four muscles were studied bilaterally using dynamic electromyography and cinematography. This study demonstrates the importance of the scapular muscles in the golf swing and the need for specific strengthening exercises. (more)


Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association
By: Fletcher GF, Balady GJ, Amsterdam EA et al.
Circulation. 2001 Oct 2;104(14):1694-740.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The purpose of this report is to provide revised standards and guidelines for the exercise testing and training of individuals who are free from clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease and those with known cardiovascular disease. These guidelines are intended for physicians, nurses, exercise physiologists, specialists, technologists, and other healthcare professionals involved in exercise testing and training of these populations. (more)


The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
By: The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group.
N Engl J Med. 1993 Sep 30;329(14):977-86.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
Long-term microvascular and neurologic complications cause major morbidity and mortality in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range could decrease the frequency and severity of these complications. (more)


Dynamic electromyographic analysis of trunk musculature in professional golfers
By: Watkins RG, Uppal GS, Perry J, Pink M, Dinsay JM.
Am J Sports Med. 1996 Jul-Aug;24(4):535-8.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
Despite individual differences among the subjects’ swings, we observed reproducible patterns of trunk muscle activity throughout all phases of the golf swing. Our findings demonstrate the importance of the trunk muscles in stabilizing and controlling the loading response for maximal power and accuracy in the golfer’s swing. This study provides a basis for developing a rehabilitation program for golfers that stresses strengthening of the trunk muscles and coordination exercises. (more)


Development of a shuttle walking test of disability in patients with chronic airways obstruction.
By: Singh SJ, Morgan MD, Scott S, Walters D, Hardman AE.
Thorax. 1992 Dec;47(12):1019-24.
This article is referred to in the course Assessment of Exercise Tolerance for Development of Safe Exercise Prescription offered by Ellen Hillegass

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Abstract:
The aim was to develop a standardised and externally paced field walking test, incorporating an incremental and progressive structure, to assess functional capacity in patients with chronic airways obstruction. The authors concluded that the shuttle walking test constitutes a standardised incremental field walking test that provokes a symptom limited maximal performance. It provides an objective measurement of disability and allows direct comparison of patients' performance. (more)


Efficacy of the Star Excursion Balance Tests in detecting reach deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability
By: Olmsted LC, Carcia CR, Hertel J, Shultz SJ.
Made available by PubMed.
J Athl Train. 2002;37(4);501-506.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
Chronic instability after lateral ankle sprain has been shown to cause balance deficits during quiet standing. Although static balance assessment in those with ankle instability has been thoroughly examined in the literature, few researchers have studied performance on more dynamic tasks. Our purpose was to determine if the Star Excursion Balance Tests (SEBTs), lower extremity reach tests, can detect deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability. (more)


Golf putt outcomes are predicted by sensorimotor cerebral EEG rhythms
By: Babiloni C, Del Percio C, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, Lizio R, Marzano N, Crespi G, Dassù F, Pirritano M, Gallamini M, Eusebi F.
J Physiol. 2008;586(1):131-139.
This article is referred to in the course Golf offered by Robert A. Donatelli

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Abstract:
The authors investigated whether frontal cerebral rhythms of the two hemispheres are implicated in fine motor control and balance. It was found that the body sway area displayed similar values in the successful and unsuccessful putts. (more)


Assessing disability and change on individual patients: a report of a patient-specific measure
By: Stratford P, Gill C, Westaway M, Binkley J.
Physiotherapy Canada. 1995;47(4):258-63.
This article is referred to in the course Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Therapy Examination and Treatment offered by J. David Taylor

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Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to assess a patient-specific measure for eliciting and recording patients' problems. While the notion was to develop a measure that would be applicable to a number of conditions or disabilities, this study assessed the measure's performance on 63 outpatients with mechanical low back pain. (more)


The role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of cancer of unknown origin
By: Demir H, Berk F, Raderer M, Plowman PN, Lassen U, Daugaard G, Clausen M, Bohuslavizki KH, Peters M, Harmer C, Malamitsi J, Aktolun C.
Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004 Jun;48(2):164-73.
This article is referred to in the course Foundations of Oncology for Physical Therapists offered by Marisa Perdomo

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Abstract:
Cancer of unknown origin (CUO) is defined by the absence of any primary tumour in biopsy-proved metastatic cancer. CUO accounts for a 5-10% of all malignancies. These tumors have a specific biology with clinical characteristics of rapid progression and atypical metastases. Diagnostic evaluation is directed at the identification of treatable subset. Accurate diagnostic workup is crucial because both prognosis and survival rates depend mainly on detection of the primary tumor site. Although these patients undergo extensive imaging procedures, nuclear medicine techniques are under-utilized despite their ability of providing molecular information. Positron emission tomography has an emerging role in this clinical challenge along with other nuclear medicine methods including, bone scan, thyroid scintigraphy. (more)

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